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An in-depth study on project development

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  1. Project development stages
    1. System investigation / recognition of needs
    2. Impetus for system changes
    3. Feasibility study
    4. System design considerations
    5. Software development
  2. System analysis
  3. Requirement analysis and specification
  4. Data flow diagram
  5. DFD symbols
  6. System design
  7. Design objectives
  8. Design principles
  9. Top-down and bottom-up strategies
  10. Modularity
  11. Abstraction
  12. Flow charts
    1. Flowchart symbols
    2. Levels of flowcharts
    3. Form/screen design
    4. Output design
    5. Forms design
  13. System development
  14. Testing and implementation
    1. Implementation
    2. Post implementation maintenance
  15. Bibliography

A project is undertaken to meet specific needs and goals or problems. One most know what the problem is before it can be solved. The basis for a candidates system is recantation of need for improving an information system or a procedure. For example a supervisor may want to investigate the system flow in purchasing, or a bank president has been getting complaints about the long lines in the drive-in. This need leads to system that can solve the problem. It entails looking into the duplication of effort.

If the problem is serious enough, management my want to have an analyst look at a preliminary survey or an initial investigation to determine whether an alternative it is possible. Such an assignment implies a commitment, especially if the analyst is hired from the outside. In the larger environments, where formal procedures are the norm, the analyst's first task is to prepare a statement specifying the scope and the objective of the problems.

The idea for changes originates in the environment or from within the firm. Environment based ideas originate from the customers, vendors, government sources, and the like. For example, new unemployment compensation regulations may make it necessary to change the reporting procedure, format and contents of various reports as well as file structures. Customer complaints about the delivery of orders may prompt an investigation of the delivery schedule, the experience of truck drivers, or the volume of orders to be delivered. When investigated, each of these ideas may lead to a problem definition as a first step in the system life cycle process.

[...] An error existing in one module does not directly affect other modules Reuse of a module is possible because each module performs some well- defined and precise function and the interface of the module with other modules is simple and minimum complexity of the design is reduced because different modules can be understood in isolation, as modules are more or less independent of each other. DESIGN PRINCIPLES: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Strategies Modularity Abstraction TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP STRATEGIES A system consists of components, which have components of their own; indeed a system is a hierarchy of components. [...]


[...] Like cards, data on diskettes are stored in sequence and in batches. MICR translates the special fonts printed in magnetic ink on check into direct computer input. Mark-sensing readers automatically convert pencil marks in predetermined locations on a card to punched holes on the same card. Optical character recognition (OCR) readers are similar to MICR readers, except that they recognize pencil, ink, or characters by their configuration (shape) rather than their magnetic pattern. Optical bar code readers detect combination of marks that represent data. [...]


[...] To what extent and how quickly a user?originated idea is converted to a feasibility study depends on several factors: The risks and potential returns. Management's bias towards the user. Financial costs and the funds available for system work. Priorities of other projects in the firm. The persuasive ability of the user. All these factors are crucial for a prompt response to a user request for change. A system analyst is in a unique position to detect and even recommend change. [...]

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