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Domain name service

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Understanding name resolution in Windows.
  3. Comparing DNS and NetBIOS.
  4. The DNS Client service: Also known as the resolver.
    1. Comparing computer names.
    2. NetBIOS name.
    3. Computer names and name suffixes.
    4. Comparing name resolution procedures.
    5. Determining when DNS is required.
    6. Determining when NetBIOS is required.
    7. DNS namespace.
    8. Domain names.
    9. Internet domain namespace.
  5. Private domain namespace.
  6. DNS components.
    1. DNS servers.
    2. DNS zones.
    3. DNS resolvers.
    4. Resource records.
  7. Understanding how a DNS query works.
    1. DNS resolution methods.
    2. DNS query steps.
    3. Understanding recursion.
    4. Root hints.
    5. Query example.
    6. Query response types.
    7. DNS server cache.
  8. Installing the DNS server service.
  9. Configuring a DNS server.
  10. Creating zones.
  11. Zone types.
  12. Primary servers.
  13. Secondary servers.
  14. Caching-only servers.
  15. Resource record format.
  16. Record types.
  17. Configuring DNS clients.
  18. Configuring client settings.
    1. Setting computer names.
    2. Accommodating NetBIOS names.
    3. Setting the primary DNS suffix.
    4. Setting connection-specific DNS suffixes.
    5. Configuring a DNS servers list.
  19. Configuring dynamic update options.
  20. Default client update behavior.
  21. Implementing a DNS infrastructure.
    1. Configuring DNS server properties.
    2. Exploring DNS server properties tabs.
    3. Interfaces tab.
    4. Forwarders tab.
    5. Advanced tab.
    6. Root hints tab.
    7. Debug logging tab.
    8. Event logging tab.
    9. Monitoring tab.
  22. Exploring DNS zone properties.
    1. General tab.
    2. Application directory partitions and DNS replication.
  23. Creating custom application directory partitions.
  24. Enabling aging.
  25. Start of authority (SOA) tab.
  26. Name servers tab.
  27. WINS tab.
  28. Zone transfers tab.
  29. Tuning advanced server options.
    1. Disable recursion.
    2. BIND secondaries.
    3. Fail on load if bad zone data.
    4. Enable net mask ordering.
    5. Enable round robin.
    6. Secure cache against pollution.
    7. Name checking.
    8. Load zone data on startup.
  30. Creating zone delegations.
  31. Delegating zones.
    1. When to delegate zones.
    2. When to delegate zones.
    3. How delegations work.
    4. Creating a zone delegation.
  32. Understanding stub zones.
    1. Stub zone example.
    2. Other uses for stub zones.
    3. Stub zone resource records.
    4. Stub zone resolution.
  33. Monitoring and troubleshooting DNS.
    1. Using DNS troubleshooting tools.
    2. Querying DNS with nslookup.
    3. Performing simple queries.
    4. Using interactive mode.
  34. Exploring nslookup options.
  35. Looking up different data types.
  36. Querying another name server directly.
  37. Using nslookup to view zone data.
  38. Configuring the DNS events log.
  39. Directory partitions and active directory-integrated zones.
  40. Searching for replication errors.
  41. Monitoring DNS performance with system monitor.
  42. DNS server performance counters.
  43. Table DNS performance counters.
  44. Conclusion.

DNS began in the early days of the Internet when the Internet was a small network created by the Department of Defense for research purpose. Before DNS, computer names, or hostnames, were manually entered into a file located on a centrally administered server. Each site that needed to resolve hostnames had to download this file. As the number of computers on the Internet grew, so did the size of this HOSTS file, and the amount of traffic generated by downloading it. The need for a new system that would offer features such as scalability, decentralized administration, and support for various data types became more obvious. The Domain Name Service (DNS), introduced in 1984, became this new system.

With DNS, the hostnames reside in a database that can be distributed among multiple servers, decreasing the load on any one server and providing the ability to administer this naming system on a per-partition basis. DNS support hierarchical names and allows registration of various data types in addition to the hostname to IP address mapping used in HOSTS files. By virtue of the DNS data being distributed, its size is unlimited and performance does not degrade much when adding more servers.

DNS translates between computer hostnames and IP address. DNS works at the Application layer of the OSI reference model and uses TCP and UDP at the transport layer. The DNS model is pretty plain: Clients make requests and get back answers. If a particular server can not answer a query, it can forward it to another, presumably better informed, server.

[...] DNS Servers A DNS server is a computer that runs a DNS server program, such as the DNS Server service or Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND). DNS servers contain DNS database information about some portion of the DNS domain tree structure and resolve name resolution queries issued by DNS clients. When queried, DNS servers can provide the requested information, provide a pointer to another server that can help resolve the query, or respond that the information is unavailable or does not exist. [...]


[...] When the setting is enabled, the server caches only those records with a name that corresponds to the domain for which the original queried name was made. Any referrals received from another DNS server along with a query response are simply discarded. For example, if a query is originally made for example.microsoft.com, and a referral answer provides a record for a name outside the microsoft.com domain name tree (such as msn.com), that name is discarded if the Secure Cache Against Pollution option is enabled. [...]


[...] An RP resource record specifies a domain mailbox name for the responsible person. The name of the record entered into this field should always end with a period. Refresh Interval The value you configure in the Refresh Interval field determines how long a secondary DNS server waits before querying the master server for a zone renewal. When the refresh interval expires, the secondary DNS server requests a copy of the current SOA resource record for the zone from its master server source, which then answers this SOA query. [...]

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