- Physical examination
- Specific IgE antibody tests
- The type of immune response
- The remote risk of inducing a systemic reaction
- The exception of penicillin
- In vitro tests for detecting allergen-specific antibody in serum
Clinical manifestations resembling allergic hypersensitivity can also occur in the absence of an immunologic mechanism. Specific examples include nonallergic (intrinsic) asthma, which is triggered by the effect of inhaled dusts and fumes, weather changes, viral respiratory infections, and stress rather than by aeroallergen-induced IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation; irritant dermatitis, the result of physical or chemical damage to skin rather than development of sensitized lymphocytes; and "anaphylactoid reactions" from nonimmunologic release of mast cell mediators.