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An overview of digestive system in humans and digestive disorders

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Satish S.
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  1. Introduction
  2. The alimentary canal
  3. Buccal cavity
  4. Description of teeth and tongue
  5. Functions of the tongue
  6. Description of pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum
  7. Digestive glands
    1. Functions of salivary glands
  8. Gastric glands
    1. Functions of gastric juice
  9. Liver
    1. Functions of bile
  10. Pancreas
    1. Functions of pancreas
  11. The intestinal glands
    1. Functions of succus entericus
  12. Summary of digestive physiology
  13. Digestive disorders
    1. Hyperacidity
    2. Peptic ulcers
    3. Jaundice
  14. Types of jaundice
    1. Hepatitic jaundice
    2. Haemolytic jaundice
    3. Obstructive jaundice (cholestatic )
  15. Conclusion

Digestion is the process of break down of (catabolic) complex organic macro molecules into simple assimilable micro molecules. This involves several biocatalysts called enzymes. Therefore digestion could also be said as the enzymatic hydrolysis of the food.The roof of the buccal cavity is the palate. At the posterior end of the soft palate there is a lose flap of tissue called the ?uvula' which closes the internal nostrils while the food is swallowed. On the floor of the buccal cavity there is a muscular organ called the ?Tongue'. On the upper and lower jaws there are hard biting structures called the teeth. There are also three pairs of salivary glands on the inside walls of the buccal cavity. These are hard, white, shining structures found on the upper and lower jaws. Since the teeth appear in two sets in humans it is called Diphyodont dentition. The teeth are located in sockets found in the jaw bones. So the dentition is also called Thecodont dentition.

[...] On the inner lining of the duodenum there are certain Brunner's glands which secrete an alkaline mucus secretion. On the inner wall of the jejunum there are the intestinal glands or the crypts of Lieberkuhn which secrete the succus entericus. The ileum opens into a caecum on the right side. This entrance is guarded by an ileo-caecal valve. LARGE INTESTINE The large intestine is about 1.5 m long and 6 cm. wide. Along its wall there are three longitudinal bands of muscles called the Taeniae coli. [...]


[...] SALIVARY GLANDS There are 3 pairs of salivary glands in the buccal cavity namely the parotid glands, sub maxillary / submandibular glands and the sublingual glands. The parotid glands are found at the base of the external ear, the sub maxillary glands are found at the angle of jaws and the sublingual glands lie below the tongue. These salivary glands secrete approximately liters of saliva per day. The saliva has a pH of 6.8 to The saliva contains water, mucus, ions, lysozyme, amylase etc. [...]


[...] B12 Digestive disorders Hyperacidity Acidity in the stomach is essential for protein digestion. Therefore the parietal cells or the oxynitic cells of the stomach wall secrete the hydrochloric acid. The pH in the stomach is between 1.5 and The hydrochloric acid is prevented from digesting the stomach wall due to the presence of thick alkaline mucus. But in some people there may be an excess production of acid. This condition is called hyperacidity. Causes: Hyperacidity is caused by consumption of stimulants like coffee, tobacco, alcohol etc. [...]

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