Do we live in a post-industrial society?
- The shift in industrial society since the 1960's.
- The increase in the non-standardization of labour.
- Social exclusion.
- George Ritzer's proposal of another theory which contributes to social exclusion in modernity.
- Ethnic diversity.
- Age as a social division and its effects.
- Disability as a source of social exclusion.
- Conclusion - Social exclusion as a very significant issue in modern society.
Contemporary society has increased in its complexity over the past three and a half decades. The labour market as we know it differs rather immensely from what was experienced at the turn of the century. Labour has evolved so dramatically that some prefer to say that we have entered a new age, that of post-industrialism. Whether or not this is the case, there is much to be observed and examined as to how our sophisticated society induces and influences social exclusion amongst members of our community. Daniel Bell, the proponent of post-industrialism hints at a strong version of understanding social exclusion. Bell's theory supposes that the structure of a post-industrial society is responsible for intensifying issues surrounding social exclusion. His theory in relation to the changes witnessed in western society and their influence on social exclusion are discussed initially. Subsequently, social exclusion is engaged in more detail.
[...] Yet one must question though, do we indeed occupy a post-industrial society? And though it has been examined that social exclusion has its roots in the discrimination of age, gender, disability and ethnicity; such exclusion restricts from a decent foot in the labour market. Thus it is important to recognize that the issues surrounding exclusion always revert back to one's position in the market. In regards to Beck's risk society model, much truth can be found that we are in a developed state of industrialization. [...]
[...] The standardisation of both production and consumption created a sense of solidarity within society, whereby citizens participating in equal forms of labour allow for equality within other spheres of life (e.g. education, income and housing). Post-Fordism conversely entails a move away from the traditional production techniques and industries. With the development of sophisticated technology in western societies, much of the monotonous and routine labour of Fordist production has become obsolete. The outsourcing of manual labour and manufacturing to less developed countries is particularly accepted for many capitalist corporations looking to cut on production costs. [...]
[...] Those growing up in areas and communities deprived of decent schooling and income find themselves faced with the same issues experienced by their elders and due to this, a recurring cycle evolves. Barry (2002: 20) states that it is the ?depress[ed] scholastic motivation' among the adults which ?contributes to poor educational outcomes that condemn the next generation to extremely limited job opportunities in their turn' producing a lack of stable and adequate income. Unfortunately, it is the issue of monetary funds which continues the cycle of social exclusion. [...]