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Civil architecture and military at the time of the Abbasids

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  1. Intoduction
  2. PART I: The Kyoto Protocol
    1. Global warming
    2. The vertices of the earth
    3. The contents of the Protocol
  3. PART II: American diplomacy around the Kyoto Protocol
    1. General Remarks
    2. The positions of the presidents of the United States before the Kyoto Protocol
    3. The presidencies of Bill Clinton (1993-2001)
    4. The term of George W. Bush (2001-2009)
  4. Conclusion

The Abbasid dynasty had come to power in the Islamic empire by eliminating various members of the Umayyad family who succeeded the prophet Muhammad. Al-Saffah was the first of the Abbasid who took power in 750 in the city of Damascus. The city became the capital of the Arab-Muslim Empire and was abandoned in favor of the new city of Baghdad in 765. But between these dates, the ruling dynasty sought a location that met the criteria. Al-Abbas, the founder of the dynasty, installed its headquarters in Hachimiyia near Kufa, Iraq, as this area had received the initial support for the political empowerment. He installed the Baghdad Caliph Al-Mansur, and chose an ancient village called Baghdad. It was a small town located about thirty kilometers northwest of the ancient Persian city of Ctesiphon. The reign of the Abbasid period was marked by a series of disputes with problems of succession. Baghdad is the capital of this empire and was abandoned in favor of another city, in the north and 125 kilometers away called Samarra. This city was the place of residence for eight Abbasid caliphs between 836 and 892. After this episode, the Abbasid caliphs at Samarra returned to Baghdad. The Abbasid dynasty left more power to other families. The Abbasid were still in power but they were under the guardianship of the family of Buyids between 946 and 1075, and then under the Seljuk family from 1075 to 1180. The Abbasid dynasty lasted until the sixteenth century in Cairo. The Abbasid power faded gradually from the tenth century. During the Abbasid period, there was an artistic development that was spreading throughout the Arab Muslim Empire. The different capitals of the empire are a reflection of that domination. It was found in the construction of Baghdad and Samarra. What are the urban developments that have been undergone by the Abbasid caliphs in their capitals? What is the role of military camps in its facilities? What are the characteristics of an Abbasid palace? To answer these questions, I will base myself on the examples of Baghdad and Samarra. I will work to highlight the division of cities and the various functions they host.

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