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The influence of Socrealism in Poland

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  1. Introduction.
    1. An attempt to translate Marxism into the sphere of art.
    2. Victory of the socialist realism trend.
  2. General principles of socrealism.
    1. Inspiring itself from a deeply monolithic theory.
    2. The general principles of socrealism, officially proposed by the communist leaders.
    3. The severe, stern aspect of the socrealist buildings.
    4. The socrealist official credo.
  3. Socrealism in Poland.
    1. The presentation of the general principles of socrealism.
    2. Polish artists in cinema.
    3. Literature as an interesting field of art.
    4. Polish socrealist painting and sculpture.
    5. Architecture.
    6. The purest socrealist style.
  4. Conclusion.
  5. Bibliography.

Socrealism is ?an attempt to translate Marxism into the sphere of art? . This term appeared first in 1932 in the soviet press. It is, more formally, an artistic current; it was indeed the official art trend imposed by the Communist regimes. It originates in the Union of Socialist and Sovietic Republics (USSR), where it was officially implemented as the unique form of art in the country in 1934, by the Congress of Sovietic Writers, after several years (since 1917 and the October Revolution indeed) of artistic debates. The Russian artists were to decide whether they had to support artistically the new Communist regime, and, if yes, which form of art would be the most appropriate. The debates were facilitated by a flourishing vanguard of young artists, eager to translate and glorify the radical social and political changes. However, vanguard art was deemed too sophisticated, too complicated for the ?basic? masses the communist regimes aimed at representing (at least, theoretically speaking). Eventually, the socialist realism trend, mainly embodied by the Russian artist Maxim GORKY, won. Indeed, realism was put in opposition with the bourgeoisie's art, such as surrealism or vanguard art.

[...] Literature is an interesting field of art as far as socrealism in Poland is concerned, because it is the field where there must have been most resistance. The Writers' Union was a place of debates and opposition to the new regime and its cultural policy, notably because writers thought that some artistic ?progressive and avant garde? styles coming from Western Europe were as able, and even more able, to stand for communism, than socrealism. Socrealism was officially carried out in 1949, but there were still much resistance. [...]


[...] Socrealism in Poland This presentation of the general principles of socrealism, even though it did not concern Poland at first sight, was absolutely necessary since socrealism was basically the same in the USSR of the 1930's, 1940's, and in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Poland among others), in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Even though there were claims, in Poland, that socrealism could find back its origins in the Polish popular tradition; socialist realism was mainly an import from the USSR, as they imported a political and an economic system. [...]


[...] Architecture is undoubtedly the most interesting field of art to study socrealism in Poland, since it was the most flourishing. We can even say socrealist architecture has become the symbol of a historic period -communism- the Poles are now to assume. Socrealist buildings are part and parcels of the landscapes of Polish cities. A certain amount of buildings, all around Poland, are registered as ?socrealist buildings?. We can think, among others, of Teatr Wielki, in Lodz; Philharmony Pomorski, in Bydgoszcz, Dom Kultury WSK, in Rzeszow, Dom Partii i Komitetu Wojewodzkiego, in Bialystok, the cinema Kosmos in Szczecin[15] . [...]

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