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Drugs and globalization

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Drugs are a traditionally transnational good: Which changes did globalization bring?
    1. Globalised drug economy.
    2. Impact of globalization on drug production and trade.
  3. Minor consequences in industrialized countries and major changes in developing countries.
    1. Minor changes in industrialized countries.
    2. Important consequences in developing countries: A new source of revenue.
  4. The future and solutions.
    1. A global lack of solutions.
    2. A few hopes Some ideas to reduce drug weight in illegal economy.
  5. Conclusion.
  6. Commented bibliography.

Relations between drugs and international trade are a long story, we could think of the 19th century and the important consumption of opium in Europe, as can be seen for example in the film From Hell. Opium was obviously not produced in Europe for climatic reasons and essentially came from Asia. Drugs have long been trans-national goods. Nowadays drugs still are a major issue in the society but consumption and production structures have evolved and are still evolving. Drug trade is linked to borders, money circulation and easy traveling. All these areas also concern globalization. A simple definition of ?drugs? could be: psycho-active substances. Nevertheless it is more complex because some products are legal in some countries and not in others. On the one hand, tobacco and alcohol are legal psycho-active substances in most countries.

[...] Governments in developing countries have loans if they reduce drugs production and exportations. Bulgaria has developed this solution with Paris club and it seems efficient. It is ironically called swap drug/debt but it seems to be a good idea because it is interesting for all implicated countries. Conclusion Even if drug has been a traded good for a long-time, globalization clearly had an impact on drug market. One of the collateral damage linked to liberalization and globalization is creating favourable conditions for drug production and money laundering. [...]

[...] A A global lack of solutions Many problems difficult to resolve and no short-run solutions There is a global lack of solutions to reduce drug production. The first problem is that it is an important source of revenue for peasants. Often they do not have other possibilities than cultivating drug if they want to have revenue and stay alive. Destruction of crops is not a fair solution because it condemns peasants to starvation and then other peasants or other countries cultivate drugs again. [...]

[...] This agreement included cannabis (which was not yet controlled) and allowed control of all new drugs having the same effects as the already prohibited drugs. At 1 November 2006, the number of States parties to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 stood at 184. Of those States were parties to that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol. There are also international bodies whose mission is to control drug. The most important bodies are the international narcotics control board and commission on narcotic drugs. [...]

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