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Has British public policy been Europeanised in the period since 1973?

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Europeanization of British public policy.
  3. Identification to what extent to which Britain has been affected by European integration.
  4. Public policy in Britain.
  5. Europeanization of British public policy since 1973.
  6. The single European market.
  7. European judicial framework.
  8. Europeanizing the British public defence policy.
  9. Development of common approaches.
  10. Tony Blair's role.
  11. Conclusion.
  12. Bibliography.

As Johan Olsen affirms ??Europeanization? is a fashionable but contested concept.? This term indeed occupies a lot of space in all studies about the European Union and more specifically about the domestic changes incurred by the member states through the dynamics of European integration. There is not really a shared definition and usually the books devote one chapter to define it . Broadly speaking, Europeanization refers to the European Union's impact on laws, politics, institutions, policies and identities in EU member states . Another definition of Europeanization is given in the chapter 15 of Bulmer and Lequesne (2000) : ?Europeanization consists of processes of construction, diffusion and institutionalisation of formal and informal rules, procedures, policy paradigms, styles, ?ways of doing things?, and shared beliefs and norms which are first defined and consolidated in the EU policy process and then incorporated in the logic of domestic discourse, political structures and public policies?.

[...] First the British public policy has been Europeanized since the membership to the European Union as many core competences of public policy have been surrendered by Britain and transferred to the Community in accordance with the treaties the latter corresponding the community pillar of the European Union identified by the treaty of Maastricht operating on a supranational basis. The membership to the Union in 1973 meant the adoption of the acquis communautaire and the common public policies developed by the founding members of the Community. [...]


[...] According to Sir Stephen Wall, Tony Blair's Europe adviser and Head of the European Secretariat in the Cabinet Office in 2002, the European integration had had a ?fairly radical impact? especially since the 1980s[15] and fostered a Europeanization of government and the machinery of public policy, being it European public policy translated into British public policy or British public policy made at the level of the member state. Heath wanted to encourage national ministers to consider Europe as integrally connected to domestic politics and because of the traditional functional and territorial distributions of responsibility within Whitehall[16]. [...]


[...] Generally speaking Britain has shown since 1973 great reluctance to the Europeanization of its public policy and the imposition of new arrays of policy in the field of social policy for instance the social chapter of the Maastricht treaty was not ratified until the Labour government of Tony Blair distrusting positive integration[29], i.e. the adoption of common public policies that would affect the most British public policy and replace or restrict its core areas of public policy, such as monetary and fiscal policy. [...]

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