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  1. Introduction.
  2. Theorical approach of innovation.
    1. Rogers school.
    2. Barnett school.
    3. Economist.
    4. Anthropologist.
  3. Definition and dimension of innovation.
    1. Definition of innovation.
    2. Dimension of innovations.
  4. Adoption of innovation.
    1. Administrative and technological innovation.
    2. Adoption decision.
    3. Adoption of technological innovation.
    4. Adoption of administrative adoption.
    5. Adoption innovations variables.
  5. Diffusion of innovation.
    1. Diffusion of technological innovation.
    2. Diffusion of Administrative innovation.
  6. 'Chegancas' of innovation.
    1. Cheganca maximalista.
    2. How to choose where innovate?
  7. Conclusion.
  8. Bibliography.

Innovation is a concept widely studied in scientific literature. However, it seems that a lot of work can still be doing about it. This is not a new concept, but it is still very difficult to define, because all the studies have different opinion on this subject. Innovation is a very simple word, but a very complex concept, it refers to many interrogations difficult to answer such as: What is innovation? Is it a process or an event? Who are the innovators ? What's the use of innovation ? and Innovation, what for ? Scientific literature widely speaks about all that questions, but many studies disagree on most of them, that is why it is not easy to answer those questions. However, answering those questions is necessary if someone wants to study this concept. That is why in this paper we will try to give a clear answer to all that questions. However, all the answer here must be considered by the reader as opinion and not as true, indeed as we already says, this concept has not a unique definition. The reader, if unsatisfied by the definition given here can report itself to the bibliography and try to find a definition that suit more to him.

[...] We will see that point while studying innovation diffusion. III.5 Adoption innovations variables As we just said, innovation adoption depends on several factors. According to Kimberley and Evanesko, these factors can be classified in 3 categories: individual, organizational and contextual. They made a study in 1981 of the adoption of administrative and technological innovation in many hospitals and the result was that both innovations depend on variables contextual, organizational and individuals. Adoption of the two different type of innovation is not influenced by identical set of variables. [...]


[...] Moreover it is said that administrative innovation aims at improving process, but we think here that such an innovation aims at improving the process to improve the productivity or the product, that is to say, to increase profit or win market share. V.II How to choose where innovate? Nowadays, managers have to always renovate products, and deal with new products. However in order to maximize the success of an innovation, managers have to choose the right innovation at the right moment at the right place. [...]


[...] At the personal level, the "induced" innovation model of Ruttan and Hayami would fit within Barnett's model. Accepting the Barnett's and Schumpeter's definition of innovation as that of making new combinations of familiar things S. Gudeman proposes that people create new things for use, and simultaneously create culture (Gudeman 1991). A discarded food bowl used for a chimney cap is thus both an innovation with practical use value and a cultural creation. This proposal is both a refinement and extension of the Barnett model. [...]

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