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Oil depletion and use of vehicles: what are the alternative energies?

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  1. The context.
    1. The oil offer.
    2. The oil demand.
    3. Oil prices.
  2. Indispensable alternatives.
  3. Alternative energies for cars.
    1. Hybrid vehicles.
    2. Vehicles fully funtioning with alternative energies.
    3. Use of gas.
    4. Electric vehicles.
  4. Business ethics problems.
    1. Related to the use of bio alcohol, oils, and flexy-fuel vehicles.
    2. Related to the use of electric vehicles.
    3. Renewable energy.
  5. Bibliography.

In our modern society, oil is omnipresent in our habits and plays a significant role. It has several stakes in economical, political and strategic fields. Indeed oil is considered as the best energy source because it is easily extracted, stocked and transformed. Moreover, its energy yield is very high. However, the constant growth of the world oil consumption linked with concerns about the energy security, raise many ethical problems. What are these problems? What solutions can be provided? In a first part, the context of oil and its depletion will be set. Then, in a second part, the overall business ethics problems will be tackled. In a third part, light will be thrown on the particular issue of car industry. The top 20 countries which have the greatest proven petroleum reserves in 2006 represent 95% (1224.5 billion barrels) of the world reserves. The ratio reserves/production remains rather stable and, at the current level, petroleum reserves are superior to 40 years. Many areas have become dependent on these countries: oil is today a pillar of our societies: new uses of petroleum appear every day. OPEC is the main player on the oil market, created at the Baghdad Conference in 1960 by Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Later Qatar (1961), Indonesia, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, United Arab Emirates, Gabon and Angola (2007) joined the five founding members.

[...] As a consequence, in early 2007 there had been several consequences for corn inflation; - food riots in Mexico due to rising prices for tortillas - reduced profits for Heineken - in Germany, incensement in cattle meat price, because cattle are fed with corn - in Germany, incensement in beer price As a consequence, the generalisation of the use of vegetable oils and alcohol as bio fuels would create a competition with alimentation. Countries using many corns in their alimentation and poor countries will suffer a lot from the use of bio fuels. [...]

[...] Let's analyse the different solutions to respond to the issue of cars' functioning Alternative energies for cars Nowadays, several solutions are developed to replace oil with other energies for cars Hybrid vehicles These vehicles can use two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle Continuously recharged Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) BEVs can be recharged while the user is driving with an electrified rail. As a consequence, this type of technology can mainly be adopted for public transports like trains, trolleys, or buses. [...]

[...] Ford Focus FFV, Focus C-MAX, Saab 9-5n Saab Volvo S40 are some of the flexible-fuel vehicles sold in Europe Hybrid-electric vehicles Hybrid vehicles most of the time refer to hybrid-electric vehicles, which use internal combustion and electric battery to power electric motors. Source: Wikipedia In fact, there are many types of hybrid electric vehicles. Here are briefly described some of them: - Micro hybrid, with the lowest level of hybridation (for example Stop & Go car ranges for Citroën C2 and C3). [...]

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