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  1. Introduction.
  2. Feelings expressed by specialists in underwater surveillance.
  3. Looking at historical events such as the Gulf War.
  4. Complications in underwater surveillance and security.
  5. A current example of homeland security.
  6. SRI's next agenda - to examine the efficiency and accuracy of the robots.
  7. Conclusion.

Different forms of security such as underwater surveillance are becoming much more important in maintaining the safety of the United States of America. Though there has been much progress made in advancing underwater surveillance and technology, there is still a necessity for improvement and innovation. Specialists in underwater surveillance feel that terrorist threats force the United States to seek new ways of heightening security. For instance, Coast Guard Pacific Area Commander, Vice Administrator Harvey Johnson states, ?Terrorists are always looking for ways to attack elements of our infrastructure to our economy and our freedom? (Thomas). There have already been innovations that have proven to be extremely beneficial in advancing underwater surveillance. In regards to the Underwater Inspection System, Petty Officer 2nd Class Jacob Smith, an electronics technician working under the Maritime Safety and Security Team elaborates that ?the Coast Guard has been lacking in this area for awhile?Before we had this system, it was all about crews standing about lookout watches. We were really limited as to what we could see. Now, we can see very well in even cloudy or murky water? (Thomas).

[...] In Tampa, a team of researchers recently dropped massive decoy bombs near bridge pilings and port docks? in order to test the effectiveness of two underwater robots in finding these decoys (Tampa Tribune). Fortunately, the robots were able to find the decoys, but questions are still arising of what the response procedures should be in an actual state of emergency. This experiment using water robots and decoy bomb was set up by a Silicon Valley based research corporation known as SRI. [...]

[...] These robots need a self-governing radar system that employs the use of tracking mechanisms such as sonar and echoes to find the exact location of these mines. Also, research to find more efficient energy sources must be completed so that the underwater robotics can run for longer durations of time without having a person have to recharge it. Another important aspect of these underwater robotics that need to be examined is their sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity is the ?probability of correctly detecting/identifying a condition when it is present? (McGrath Intro 28). [...]

[...] Underwater surveillance such as underwater mine security began to dramatically improve in 2001 when the National Academy of Sciences claimed that the United States was not ready to confront warfare with mines. Underwater robotics has played an important role in improving the security of underwater surveillance in recent years. For instance, one of the newest innovations is the Navy's mine-hunter, which ?looks like a 5-foot-long torpedo and can be dropped over the side of a small boat? (NPR). There has been much progress in advancing underwater surveillance and security. [...]

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