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Will Narco-trafficking ever stop in Afghanistan?

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Opium cultivation: Increas in the post 9.11 Afghanistan.
    1. Poppy culture in Afghanistan: Reasons why it appeared.
    2. Opium is still a mainstay of this highly unstable society.
  3. Usual methods used for the drug wars.
    1. The failure of the application of the past drug wars.
    2. The particularities that make the Afghan case totally unique.
  4. Alternative solutions.
    1. A licensed opium culture could avoid many problems.
    2. This 'solution' raises many other points and remains nearly utopian.
  5. Conclusion.
  6. Bibliography.

Since December 1979 and the Soviet Christmas invasion of the country, we could say that peace has never been satisfactorily reached again in the country. The Afghan War has firstly destroyed the country from 1979 to 1989 and caused the death of nearly 2 million civilian victims among the Afghan people and then the Enduring Freedom Operation for which no civilian toll is available, which seems quite mysterious. This country has been the theatre of devastation for more than three decades, without any tangible results. Today's situation may appear more satisfying since there is an elected president since 2004 and the nations re-building process is supposed to be in progress. Actually, today's Afghanistan seem to be reviving his old demons, with an endemic corruption of the whole state, war lords acting as local kings in their respective provincial strongholds and opium trafficking increasing substantially.

[...] - SCOTT DALE (Peter), Drugs, oil, and war: the United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, July 2003. - SABBAGH (Daniel), La politique étrangère américaine de lutte contre la drogue et l'Amérique Latine: émergence d'un enjeu et évolution des stratégies, in. Relations internationales et stratégiques, fall 1996, p.57-65. - UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME, Annual Report 2007, at - GLAZE (John Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. counter narcotics strategy, at October 2007. [...]

[...] What is also important for selling this production is that an increasing demand for heroin exists and is estimated to more than 15.6 millions people[6], mainly in occidental countries, but what is more worrying is the booming demand of Russia and Asia that will surely not dissuade any afghan farmer to begin the culture of opium. All these reasons still make it an attractive culture to develop and explain why it appeared and will certainly not disappear in a decade. [...]

[...] More generally, in spite of the western power's efforts to lead actions against it, poppy production explodes from year to year and will certainly do so for the next gathering. It is now deeply held in the region and that is why usual methods to fight drug just fail. Eradication has always been counterproductive and will remain so, that is why this kind of policy should definitely be abandoned. The weakness of the state and the corruption that is undermining every new initiative are not decreasing fast and are just preventing any usual counter-narcotic measure from having positive effects. [...]

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