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Cross-reference study on the notion of "Leadership"

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  1. Biography: Joan of Arc
    1. Introduction
    2. Joan of Arc: A born leader
    3. A charismatic leader
    4. A lonely leader
    5. Conclusion
  2. Book review: Moments of truth, by Jan Carlzon
    1. Introduction
    2. Responding to change
    3. Developing a vision
    4. Managing subordinates
    5. Applying a leadership style
    6. Conclusion
  3. Essay: Who am I? How will I lead?
    1. Introduction
    2. Sources and development of leadership
    3. Different leadership styles
    4. Good and bad leaders in respect to the context
    5. Conclusion
  4. Reference list

Joan of Arc's public career lasted only for two years but her history has come down through the ages, so that each year, her courage is praised on May 1st. Why is this sixteen-year-old girl engraved in our memory in such an unforgettable way? Answering to this question amounts to go over her hectic and terrific life that made her, according to Mark Twain, ?easily and by far the most extraordinary person the human race has ever produced?.

Her childhood in the context of warfare
Joan of Arc was born on January 6th, 1412, at Domrémy, a village in the Meuse valley, in North-eastern France at the boarder of Champagne and Lorraine. (Zupko 1997) Her parents, Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée, were farmers and owned several acres of land.

France was then caught up in a conflict with England, later called by historians the ?Hundred Years' War?, that started in 1337 over claims by the English kings to the French throne and the lingering debates over Gascony, Aquitaine and Flanders. The territory was divided in several areas; Britain and its ally Burgundy ruled Northern and South-western France whereas the rest of the country still belonged to France. (Zupko 1997)

This war was to play an important role in Joan's life since it allowed her to carve out her leader status while fulfilling her ?mission?: drive away invaders and help Charles VII to be crowned. (Zupko 1997)

[...] Setting a new strategy Carlzon was appointed CEO of three companies in a time span of ten years. In each case, the company was loosing market shares and money. Carlzon was expected to reverse the trend: the organization was to compete effectively and remain profitable. To do so, he followed several steps: he started by analyzing the market and the way the company was adjusting to it, mentioning that they ?needed a clear picture of the outside world and [the company's] position within then he set a new goal; finally, he assessed the strengths the company would have to focus on in order to build a competitive advantage and he defined the core competence. [...]

[...] At first, those voices advised her to pray often and attend mass. (Tallon 1997) As a few years passed, Joan kept hearing voices but they started exhorting her to drive out the English, recover her homeland and help Charles VII, the Dauphin of France, to be crowned. (Zupko 1997) Joan was not at that point a leader. She was just a sixteen-year-old girl without any education. But these celestial voices she heard or thought she heard gave her something she did not have before: the feeling of having a special task to fulfil. [...]

[...] But her request was rejected twice by the commander Robert de Baudricourt. Nevertheless, she did not withdraw, came back again a year later, and succeeded this time. (Zupko 1997; Mark Twain 1904; Tallon 1997) This behavior is a clear proof of her determination, her motivation and the faith she had in her ability to achieve her goal. She never forgot her goal, and made everything to achieve it. At that point, accompanied by a follower, she clearly disclosed her leadership style. [...]

[...] (Tallon 1997) Her letter began: ?King of England, and you, duke of Bedford, who call yourself regent of the kingdom of France, you, Sir John Talbot, and you, Sir Thomas of Scales, who call yourself lieutenant of the aforesaid duke of Bedford, settle your debt to the king of Heaven, the keys to all the good towns you took and violated in France. ( ) Surrender to the maid. This letter reveals how audacious, courageous she was and the nerve she had. The battle of Orleans, the climax of her career Once in Orleans, she was never kept informed and was excluded from war councils but it did not deter her from being present. (Zupko 1997) Once more, she was focused on her goals. [...]

[...] Cauchon then turned her sentence to excommunication and jailed her for life (Zupko 1997). An uncertain outcome Nevertheless, four days after, she realized that she had been untrue with herself and, in a courageous outburst she wore once again male clothing, claming being a soldier of God (Zupko 1997). Even if she was sure to be sentenced to death, she respected her ideas, following her piety and her goal of driving the English away. On May she was burnt in front of a cross and with the name of Jesus on her lips (Zupko 1997). [...]

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