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The French Newspaper “Le Monde”

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The founder of the daily 'Le Monde', Hubert Beuve-Mery, and its editors, often used terms like ?institution', or ?cooperative', to describe this community newspaper; and when we consider the low inclination of Hubert Beuve-Mery towards projects of a financial or commercial nature , the fact that the company is considering such a project seems somewhat paradoxical. Indeed, every company tries to cultivate its own unique characteristic that makes it stand out in the mundane world of business. That is why many authors, speaking of ?Le Monde', emphasize the "institutional character of the house" but rarely comment on commercial or financial aspects. Some refuse to work elsewhere in the world business.

The arguments of the proponents of this position are still quite simplistic: Le Monde had little capital until 1995; the associates were often penniless; the founder's aim was editorial independence for all; the success of its patrons was quite uncertain, and thus the company had no obligation of providing a result or performance, making it difficult to classify it as a business. We can thus limit the definition of a business as invested capital and profit. ?Le Monde' is a company; a human organization that sells its products in a freely competitive market, and that's what we decided to investigate.

However, it is true that in this business, the emotional investment is considerable, and that is probably why during interviews conducted as part of ethnological and sociological surveys, a recurring phrase was: "The newspaper [?Le Monde'] is not a business like any other?. This strong identity is a very interesting phenomenon, but it is also a factor of opacity or even misunderstanding when one wants to study the company itself.

Therefore, we tried to confine ourselves to study the newspaper company, which aims to publish the daily ?Le Monde'. What is changing in this business environment? What data market does it operate in? How has this company changed over time? How does a person who works in this company, live on a daily basis? What are its main challenges? What future can be expected? These are the questions we will try to answer, the aim being to gain a complete picture, but also differentiate from the earlier scenario, and better understand the business World.

The activity of the press is tightly controlled in France by the legal domain. The texts of laws abound with information regarding journalism and advertising.

Firstly as we have seen, the law on freedom of expression was proclaimed by Article 11 of the declaration of human rights and citizen and the law of 29 July 1881 was established to protect more effectively the freedom of the press. These two laws are thus the pillars of the legislation in the world of the press even though we can see that there are some limits on freedom of information. Indeed, French law is more repressive compared to the Anglo-Saxon one which can be considered a real limitation.For example, the law regarding the protection of private life is very different; in France the law states that no person shall disrespect the privacy of another's life (law ofJuly 17, 1970).

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