The Earth is warming up. This assessment has been highlighted by numerous scientists for several decades and is currently one of the main concerns all around the world. Even if the causes are not objectively acknowledged, the fact is unquestionable: During the 20th century, the average temperature on Earth had increased by 0.74°C. Arctic ice floe has lost one third of its thickness. And within a hundred years, sea-level has gone up by 17cm. In order to avoid such climatic peaks, with catastrophic human, social and economical consequences, it is essential to take drastic measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions all around the world. If those gases exist at a natural state, the human activity increases their amount in the atmosphere, causing the atmosphere to warm-up, therefore leading to non-reversible damages such as devastating cyclones, vast scale floods or tidal waves. The core greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is carbon dioxide. Each and every human activity directly generates carbon dioxide. To the top of those activities are fossil fuels combustion, human and animal breathing. According to the report of the GIEC1 on global warming, published in 2007, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been increasing for ten years and faster than usual from the past 40 years. According to this same report, greenhouse gases' emissions would increase from 25 to 90% between 2000 and 2030. Because of this very high concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, plants photosynthesis is not sufficient enough to absorb as much carbon dioxide. The global ecological balance is therefore endangered. In 2005, numerous countries signed Kyoto's agreement. They therefore have committed to reduce their global greenhouse gases' emissions by 20% from 1990 to 2020. Way of life is consequently changing, and the repercussions are felt in each citizen's daily life. Sustainable development is the new credo of the 21st century. Such a global issue obviously has an impact on how people consume goods, and on how companies do business. New norms are regulating each industry, having a huge impact on companies' strategies.
As far as transportation is concerned, it appears that this industry produces around 10% of global greenhouse gases' emissions into the atmosphere2. Even if cars are nowadays ten times "cleaner" than those at the beginning of the nineties, car industry remains the most polluting transportation, as shown in figure 1 in appendix. In order to reverse the trend, new norms to preserve the environment are being laid down in the car industry. From Euro 1 in 1992, making catalytic converter compulsory on each car, to Euro 5 in 2009, imposing particle filter on each car, cars are getting more and more "environmental focused". Carbon di oxide emissions had even in Europe fallen from 186g/km in 1995 to 145.42g/km in 2009.
It even appears that the French motor vehicle fleet is "cleaner" in Europe, with an average CO2 emission of 132.8g/km3. The objective for 2012 with the Euro 6 norm is to go down to a 130g/km emission in Europe.
[...] A very low penetration rate is forecasted 10 Report downloadable at http://www.voitureelectrique.net/resultats-etude-marche-vehicules-electriques- Limited future perspectives for the electric car 3.1 A low forecasted penetration rate Forecasts concerning electric cars' penetration rate in the car market are all converging: heat engines still have the advantage and will keep it for several years. In a survey carried out by the Price Waterhouse Cooper Automotive Institute, one of the world's largest providers of automotive industry consulting services, the institute “estimates that by 2016, annual production of Electric Vehicles (EVs) could reach 1.4 million units globally, which will represent approximately of global vehicle assembly”11. [...]
[...] - Another key issue is the price of electric cars: apart from a few models, zero emission vehicles are far more expensive than regular cars, with a minimum price around 30,000€ for urban cars. Moreover, according to the market study on buying behavior in the car industry15, price is the first incentive in the buying process15. And yet, the amortizing period concerning electric cars is between 4 to 8 years while consumers generally expect a 3 years amortization period when buying a car16. [...]
[...] As a major innovation totally questioning the rules in the car industry, the Zero Emission Vehicle, or the Electric Car, hit the roads. Basing on a visit to the Paris Motor show that took place in October 2010, we will therefore try to understand the current situation faced by car manufacturers in order to analyze how the electric car can be considered as a disruptive technology that best answers new issues in the market. Then, we will analyze Renault's positioning in the market and try to assess whether or not the French company can be considered as a disruptor. [...]
[...] As environmental worries reach consumers more and more, it could be time for car manufacturers to green” Facing new environmental issues Developing “green that is to say, Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) is the car industry's new challenge. In order to comply with more and more draconian regulations, companies invest highly: one third of the 70 billion Euros yearly invested in R1D are allocated to researches on carbon dioxide emissions' reduction6. As we said in the introduction, legal measures will limit CO2 emissions from 130g/km in 2012 to 95g/km in 2020. [...]
[...] For several years, Renault has been trying to launch a whole range of electric cars. As research is getting more and more precise, innovations presented at the Paris World Show the last time were totally realistic . Renault's strategy actually consists in becoming the number one manufacturer to design and market a comprehensive range of electric cars accessible to the greatest number of people. The company's first models will be delivered next year. One of Renault's competitive advantages on the market of zero-emission vehicles is its comprehensive range of products and its affordable prices. [...]
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