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The labor market in Spain

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  1. Introduction.
  2. History of the Spanish labour market and its reforms.
    1. From the worker's statute to the reform of 1994.
    2. State of the Spanish labour market in 1980's.
    3. Changes in employment structure and labour policies.
    4. Recent changes and current state.
    5. April agreements and part time reforms.
  3. Unemployment and labour policies.
    1. Structure and causes of unemployment.
    2. The employment policies in Spain.
  4. Conclusion.
  5. Glossary.
  6. References.

Today, a lot of desires or worries of the European population are linked with the employment. From the question ?What would you do when you grown up?? to the social claims and the general strikes. The reason is simple: a job provides a means to live but above all, work is presented as a mean to develop oneself and people want and are right to believe it. But the labor market, as it is named, is not an easy thing to understand and its fluctuations are still hard to control. Indeed, despite the liberal nature of the private contracts, the labor market is strongly regulated and people, in Europe, wait a lot for the governments. We will study in this analysis the evolution of the Spanish labor market since the new democratic stability of the 80's and the measures taken by the governments. In the second part, we will focus on the unemployment question in Spain and the policies stetted by the State in order to fight against this complicated problem.

[...] Since 1984 employers were dissuaded from signing part-time contracts and part-time workers in Spain were essentially subject to the same rules, pro rata, as full-time workers. For the most part these workers ended up with temporary contracts. The policy dilemma was how to address the trade- off between the quantity and quality of part-time work, the search of new combinations of flexibility and security. The Labour Reform introduced in 1994 increased labour market flexibility in response to the new demands for greater competitiveness and lifted important restrictions on part-time work concerning maximum daily and weekly hours and the absolute ceiling of two- thirds of standard full-time hours. [...]

[...] The labour market policies are not strictly in favour of one of these theories. On the whole, we can say that the passive policy is historically following a keynesian logic as a support to the aggregate demand. In contrary, the evolution of active policies seems more linked with the neoclassical ideas even if they present a real interest for the theories of human capital. B. The employment policies in Spain The unemployment benefits. The system protection against the unemployment risk combines two levels: unemployment insurance with decreasing allowances and function of the preliminary working lives and an unemployment assistance where the allowance accounts for 75% of the inter-professional minimum wage. [...]

[...] The labour market in Spain has suffered a transformation in the last few years, not only as a consequence of the progressive incorporation of women into the labour market but also due to the incorporation of the population of immigrants. The employment rate* - persons between the ages 15 and 64 - as an annual average has risen from in 1995 to when it reached a decade high. Even so, it is still less than the community average which is There were 2.1 unemployed people in Spain in 2003. [...]

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