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HRM training development and appraisals

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  1. Introduction
  2. The performance management system â€" Beyond appraisals
  3. Identifying and measuring employee performance
  4. Factors that influence performance
  5. Assessing the person, not evaluating the job
  6. Objectives of performance appraisal
  7. Informal performance appraisal
  8. The evaluation process
  9. Employee rating of managers
  10. Traditional performance appraisal: Logic and process
  11. Multiple organizational uses for performance appraisal information
  12. Performance appraisal methods
  13. Distortion - improper emphasis on certain performance
  14. Conclusion

There is " . . . a basic human tendency to make judgments about those one is working with, as well as about oneself? (Dulewicz). Appraising is unavoidable and universal. Even in a basic work structure, people will naturally, informally tend to judge the work of others. However; this natural human inclination can create problems in the work setting such as: motivational, ethical and legal. A structured appraisal system is needed in order to be lawful, fair, and justifiable.

Performance appraisal systems began as a means to justify income. It was used to decide whether or not the wages of an employee was proper. This process strongly associated appraisals to material outcomes. There would be a pay cut for unsatisfactory performance and a pay raise for superior performance. It was believed that a cut or raise in pay would, and should, provide enough motivation to improve or continue to perform well. Sometimes this system worked, but more often it fell short of expectations.

Researchers began finding that people with different levels of motivation and performance were getting paid the same. Experimental studies confirmed their findings. Pay was not he only element that had an impact on employee performance. Other aspects, such as moral and self-esteem, could also have a major influence. As a result, in the 1950's in the United States, the possible usefulness of appraisals as tool for motivation and development was progressively acknowledged. This is when the models we know and use today began being developed.

The Performance Management System ? Beyond Appraisals
Processes used to identify, encourage, measure, evaluate, improve, and reward employee performance.
Performance Management is a means whereby employee's work behaviors are aligned with the organization's goals.

[...] Criteria for a Good Appraisal System Validity Reliability Freedom from Bias Freedom from Rating Errors Leniency Errors Severity Errors Central Tendency Errors Halo Errors Practicality Performance Appraisal in Practice 93% smaller organizations(fewer than 500 employee) 97% larger organizations 62% small organizations use rating scales use MBO 51% large organizations use rating scales use essays, and about 17% use MBO. An Evaluation of Performance Appraisal Formats CRITERIA Format Employee Administration Research Cost Validity Development Personnel Ranking poor average good good good Standard average poor poor good average Rating Scale BARs good average poor poor average MBO excellent average poor average excellent Essay unknown good poor average unknown Summary of Appraisal Methods ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES TRAITS Inexpensive Potential for error Meaningful Poor for counseling Easy to use Poor for allocating rewards Poor for promotional decisions BEHAVIOR Specific dimensions Time consuming Accepted by employees Costly Useful for feedback Some rating error OK for reward / promotion RESULTS Less subjectivity error Time consuming Accepted by employees Focus on short term Performance reward link Criterion contamination Encourages goal setting Criterion deficiency Good for promotional decisions Performance Appraisal Methods 1.Ranking The term ranking has been used to describe an alternative method of performance appraisal where the supervisor has been asked to order his or her employees in terms of performance from highest to lowest. [...]


[...] Structure?they are standardized and can be easily compared and contrasted universally Equality?each employee is subject to the same process and rating, encourages fair treatment Easy?to use and understand, widespread acceptance for this approach Drawbacks / Disadvantages Unclear standards Halo effect Central tendency Bias Restrictions on the range of possible rater responses Differences in the interpretations of the meanings of scale items and scale ranges by raters Poorly designed scales that encourage rater errors Rating form deficiencies that limit the effectiveness of the appraisal Trait Relevance?a fixed system doesn't consider the difference of importance of traits in different positions Perceptual Errors?people in general see in others what we want to see in them Perceived Meaning?appraisers do not share the same opinion about the meaning of the selected traits Rating Errors?appraisers may be tempted to give out too many passive, middle ratings, regardless of the actual performance 6. [...]


[...] Organizational use of individual performance appraisals can hinder the development of teamwork Traditional Performance Appraisal : Logic and Process Supervisory Rating of Subordinates Linkage between Strategy, Outcomes, and Organizational Results Multiple Organizational Uses for Performance Appraisal Information General Applications Specific Uses Developmental Uses Identification of Individual Training & Development Needs Performance Feedback & Improvement Determining Transfers and Job Assignments Identification of Individual Strengths and Developmental Needs Coaching, Career & Development Planning Management Development Opportunity to discuss individual performance Administrative Uses / Decisions Basis for salary recommendations Compensation Adjustments Promotion Motivational tool Transfers Retention or Termination Dismissal Downsizing Recognition of Individual Performance Layoffs Identification of Poor Performers Organizational Maintenance / Human Resource Planning Determining Organization Training Objectives Needs Evaluation of Organizational Goal Achievement Information for Goal Identification Evaluation of Human Resource Systems Reinforcement of Organizational Development Needs Opportunity to improve organizational effectiveness To provide a basis for organizational productivity Documentation Criteria for Validation Research Documentation of Human Resource Decisions Helping to Meet Legal Requirements The Five Way Credibility Test for Appraisal Systems Is it valid ? [...]

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