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A study on human resource (manpower) planning in organizations

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  1. Introduction
    1. Meaning of planning
    2. Meaning of manpower planning
    3. Advantages and applications of manpower planning
  2. Manpower planning process
    1. Analyzing the existing human resources
    2. Reviewing the existing human resources
    3. Demand and supply forecasting
    4. Developing human resources
  3. Factors affecting manpower planning process
    1. Type and strategy nature of organization
    2. Environmental uncertainty
    3. Time horizons
    4. Type and quality of information
    5. Nature of the job
    6. Off-loading
  4. Conclusion
  5. References

Planning is deciding in advance. In a broad sense, planning entails anticipating future opportunities and threats and drawing up a blueprint to coordinate, motivate, and control the activities of the available assets for the effective implementation of organizational goals and objectives in a time-bound manner.Eric W. Velter defines Human Resource Planning or manpower planning as the process by which management determines how an organization should move from its current human resources position to its desired human resources position. Through planning, management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right place, at the right time, to do things which result in, both, the organization and the individual receiving the maximum long-range benefit.Coleman defines human resources planning as the process of determining manpower requirements and the means for meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization.Stainer defines human resources planning as the strategy for the acquisition, utilization, improvement, and preservation of an enterprise's human resources. It relates to establishing job specification or the quantitative requirements of jobs determining the number of personnel required and developing source of human resources.

[...] The exact time span of the human resource plan depends on the degree of uncertainty prevailing in an organization's environment. Companies operating in an unstable environment such as Information Technology draw up human resources plans for a relatively short period. Other organizations, such as universities, where the environment is stable draw up human resource plans extending up to many years. Many organizations make human resource plans that extend to five years and more. However, only forecasts up to two years provide any reasonable level of accuracy, and even such forecast requires constant review and readjustment. [...]

[...] Managerial judgments are crude rule of the thumb predictions made by managers about their human resource requirements based on their subjective factors, after considering the various factors known to them in the course of their day-to-day role. Ratio-trend method depends on the crude estimates made by different departments in an organization, like for instance the sales department determining the number of customer calls a salesperson should make in a week, and then making an estimate of the workforce required on a proportionate basis, based on existing and expected volumes of work. [...]

[...] Developing a human resources plan to bridge the demand-supply gap Human resources planning is a dynamic exercise that is broad in scope, and the process can start from any one of the steps mentioned above, without necessary having to apply all these steps in succession. Analyzing existing human resources The foundation for stating a human resources planning exercise is having proper records of existing employees divided into three major components: Personal Data, Position Data and Financial Data. Personal Data incorporates personal details such as age, qualifications, special skills, and training record. [...]

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