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Performance evaluation of supply chains

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Since the early 1990s, inter-organizational relationships are increasingly considered as a major source of value creation, in areas such as strategic management, marketing, research and development, information systems. The participating firms have the ability to forge effective partnerships, and thus build networks where each retains its independence but certainly demonstrates a strong sense of interdependence in relationships. The field of logistics is fertile for studying such relationships when a supply chain is defined as all enterprises involved in the movement of goods flow from design to end of product life.

The supply chain thus involves various actors, legally independent, culturally different, which coordinates and/or cooperates to achieve a set of activities aimed at satisfying a customer (in terms of cost, quality, time and services associated with the product).Therefore, inter-organizational relations in the supply chain refers to complexity management.

Bouchard and Picq (2005) talks about the main characteristics of such complex systems including the nonlinearity (which follows from the complex links between the various components of the system) and self-organization(which brings to complex systems the ability to reconfigure in the absence of any outside intervention) .These two characteristics of complex supply chains transposed directly, affect systems .

Evaluation and measurement of logistics performance, is the basis of strategic management. These systems must provide to all partners involved in achieving a shared goal, the requisite means to facilitate individual and collective action and thus continually improve the performance of the chain.

Managing performance in complex logistics processes, is an approach through the policy process, that leads to the design of evaluation systems and gives an assessment of performance at local and global levels. The performance of the interfaces between the various entities comprising the logistics process shows the aim of a continuous reorganization of the chain.

David (1997) speaks of three stages of logistics characterized by their dominant rationality and mode of strategic management. Thus, the first optimization refers to the rationality that underlies the choice of transport mode, the call and the choice of an auxiliary, the choice of management mode, the mode of operation and optimal location of the operational facility.

The second stage of logistics seeks greater control over the organization and the emergence of the concept of chain, initially transport , then "logistics" to describe the willingness to coordinate all the flows of the company. This phase also marks the transition from technical rationality to strategic rationality. Now the logistics system as a whole is apprehended focusing on the relationship between business functions and the different actors of supply chains.

The aim is the control of physical flows via information flows associated with the entire chain. This more holistic view of the logistics process, transverse to the company and inter-organizational in nature, takes into account the "chain of solidarity" (Pasha, 1994) 4. In this context, "the place of logistics is not only to make the process efficient and engender effective movement of goods and information, it is primarily occupies the place of a "mediator" between the flows so that individuals can interact on a shared organizational culture. "(Colin and Guilhon, 1996).

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