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What are the barriers to effective participation and how might they be overcome?

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  1. The meanings of an effective employee participation
  2. The barriers to an effective employee participation
  3. The solutions to solve the employee involvement complex equation

In the recent years there has been an important growth in the popularity of employee involvement schemes under the aegis of employee empowerment and participation. Employees became one of the most valuable resource of an organization (Holden, 1994), and participation, one of the best practice that companies can use to obtain a sustainable economic competitive advantage. However, several studies (Wagner, 1994) done over the years produced mixed results as to the effectiveness of participation on job satisfaction and performance. So it is deserved to question about the employee participation. What is effective employee participation and effective to whom? What limits can be identified and is there any solution?

[...] Kale (1999) is going further, by characterizing participation as a situation in which employees can have some sort of share in the business that employs them. These situations refer to any organizational dispositions, practices or mechanisms that allow them to share. What employees share and how is left open. Kale (1999) points that participation isn't a specific type of employee involvement. Participation is involvement through sharing. As it has been suggested before, the idea of employee participation may seem self-evident, as employee must be involved in order to do their job. [...]

[...] (2001) ?Delivering customer oriented behaviour through empowerment: an empirical test of HRM assumptions', Journal of Management Studies, Vol No pp. Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor (2013), the relationship with fulfillment of psychological contract, nternational Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Volume Issue pages 715- Rothstein, L.R. (1995) empowerment effort that came undone', Harvard Business Review, January?February John A Wagner (1994), Participation's effects on performance and satisfaction: A reconsideration of research evidence, the Academy of Management Review, 04/1994, Volume 19, Issue 2. [...]

[...] The development of employee participation in companies, raises indeed a dilemma: how much power to extend to the employees to encourage their creative initiatives, and at the same time not undermining managerial prerogatives. Overcome barriers to effective participation, means to balance employee and employers' desires. Only the cooperation between both parts, can lead to a complete change of the organizational culture. Then, in order to provide organization's effectiveness and long term competitive advantage, it is necessary to open employee participation plans to external interactions, as a way of constant renewing. [...]

[...] Human Resource Management A Contemporary Perspective. London, Pitman Publishing. Ch Hyman JD, (1995) Managing Employee Involvement and Participation Kale, J. (1999), "Understanding participation", Journal of Business Ethics, Dordrecht, September 7 Lawler, E. (1986) High Involvement Management, Jossey-Bass social and behavioral science series Lawler, Edward III Keeping Current/Book Reviews: The merits and problems of participation, National Productivity Review (1986-1998); Spring 1987; ProQuest Business Collection pg MacDuffie, John Paul 1995, Human Resource Bundles and Manufacturing Performance: Organizational Logic and Flexible Production Systems in the World Auto Industry. [...]

[...] Indeed, with the idea of participation goes the thought that employees desire to participate. According to Mc Gregor's theory Y (The Economist / Ramesh et al employees wants to be committed, take responsabilities and desire opportunities for personal development within their job. Furthermore Maslow (1954), in his hierarchy of needs, explains that employees need involvement and participation within the organization, to satisfy their higher-order needs. Moreover, according to Lawler (1986), since the education was increased in the society, employee have greater expectations in employment and desire to participate as their skills increase. [...]

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