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How can organizations tackle environmental constraints to reach an eco-efficient supply chain?

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  1. Summary.
  2. Introduction.
  3. Environmental Constraints: A new issue for organizations.
    1. State of the environment.
    2. Pressure from stakeholders.
    3. Current responses from organization.
  4. Suppy chain redefined: From traditional suppy chain to reverse logistics and green supply chain.
    1. Reversed logistics/closed group.
    2. Green supply chain model.
  5. Optimizing green supply chain to get economic benefits.
    1. Life cycle assessment.
    2. Life cycle engineering and life cycle value assessment.
    3. Another analytical tool.
    4. Competitiveness and economic performance.
  6. Conclusion.
  7. Appendix.
  8. Reference.

For many years, being ecologically and environmentally friendly was not a concern for companies; they mostly focused on costs no matter how harmful their practices and processes might be for the environment. However, today, environmental issues are growing and becoming a real threat. Consequently, environmental pressures on businesses are getting more and more important, especially since many different stakeholders have become aware and worried about the undesirable side effects of economic growth. This new ?environmental era? is a real challenge for companies which now have to find a way to deal at the same time with economic development and environmental protection. Therefore, organizations having to be responsible for their products ?from cradle to grave? are reconsidering their logistics strategies in order to meet these new constraints and the traditional Supply Chain (SC) is likely to be modified. Reverse logistics has been the main answer; but as its requirements focus mostly on the manufacturing phase and the disposal of products, other approaches should be considered. In particular, Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) goes further and proves that companies can improve their environmental practices at each stage of their SC by adopting a proactive attitude and implementing upstream a real strategy they follow along the SC.

[...] Appendix Appendix Strategies for managing and Responding to environmental issues Excerpt from Murphy and Poist 2000: 9 Percentage of respondents STRATEGIES Currently Plan to No plans to use use use possible possible possible efforts/accomplishments of company personnel components for greater environmental efficiency efforts manage environmental issues environmental concerns conscious personnel involvement/regulation Appendix Model of reverse logistics Appendix Graph of Green Supply Chain Management Adapted from Hervani et al : 335 Appendix the processes involved in an LCA Excerpt from Kjaerheim 2005: 336 Appendix Ecological Fingerprint of the two colorants studied Excerpt from Bengtsson 2004: 20 Appendix Eco-efficiency profile Excerpt from Bengtsson 2004: 17 Reference list Beamon Benita M.1999. [...]

[...] Introduction In an economic context dominated by sustainable development[1], organizations are reconsidering their logistics strategies in order to meet environmental constraints imposed by national governments, supranational bodies, customers, as well as shareholders and employees who now care about the ?ethical image? of the company. As customers, we are now confronted with one perspective on the issue; but as managers, we will have to deal with the opposite perspective as well, which makes this topic relevant for us. Environmental Supply Chain Management is critical future avenue? (Nichols 1999) for organizations and appears more as a competitive initiative to combine both commercial and environmental benefits rather than a reactive compliance with regulation (Van Hoek 1999). [...]

[...] Therefore, each company, whether a service-provider or a manufacturer has something to do with the quality of the environment; and according to Fiskel (1996), ?manufacturing and production processes are viewed as the culprits in harming the environment, in the forms of waste generation, ecosystem disruption and depletion of natural resources? (Beamon 1999: 332) Pressures from stakeholders As described above, environmental constraints are growing and becoming a real threat for our environment. Consequently, environmental pressures on business are getting more and more important especially since different stakeholders have become more concerned about the undesirable side effects of economic growth. [...]

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