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A study on organizational change

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  1. Introduction
  2. Meaning of change
  3. Forces for change
    1. External forces
    2. Internal forces
  4. Types of change
    1. Individual level change
    2. Group level change
    3. Organization level change
    4. Managing planned change
  5. Planning for change
  6. Assessing change forces
  7. Force field analysis
  8. Implementing change
  9. The change process: Three phase process
    1. Unfreezing
    2. Changing
    3. Refreezing
  10. Change options
    1. Structure
    2. Technology
    3. People
    4. Physical setting
  11. Human reaction to change
  12. Causes of resistance to change
    1. Individual resistance
    2. Group resistance
    3. Organization resistance
  13. Overcoming resistance to change
  14. Conclusion

Change is inevitable in the life of an organization. In today's business world, most of the organizations are facing a dynamic and changing business environment. They should either change or die, there is no third alternative. Organizations that learn and cope with change will thrive and flourish and others who fail to do so will be wiped out. The major forces which make the changes not only desirable but inevitable are technological, economic, political, social, legal, international and labor market environments. Recent surveys of some major organizations around the world have shown that all successful organizations are continuously interacting with the environment and making changes in the structural design or philosophy or policies or strategies as the need be.

According to BARNEY AND GRIFFIN, ?the primary reason cited for organizational problems is the failure by managers to properly anticipate or respond to forces for change.?

Thus in a dynamic society surrounding today's organizations, the issue is how managers cope with the inevitable barrage of changes that confront them daily in attempting to keep their organizations viable and current. Otherwise the organizations will find it difficult or impossible to survive.

[...] For example, if the management wants to change the promotion policy, it must decide as to what type of employees will be affected by it, whether to change the policy for all the departments at once or to try it on a few selected departments first. vi. Strategy for the implementation of the plan. In this stage, the management must decide on the ?when', ?where' and ?how' of the plan. This includes the right time of putting the plan to work, how the plan will be communicated to the employees in order to have the least resistance and how the implementation will be monitored. [...]

[...] Therefore, a manager should never treat the employees in isolation but he must understand that the individual level change will have repercussions beyond the individual GROUP LEVEL CHANGE Management must consider group factors while implementing any change, because most of the organizational changes have their major effects at the group level. The groups in the organization can be formal groups or informal groups. Formal groups can always resist change for example; the trade unions can very strongly resist the changes proposed by the management. [...]

[...] Coercion can seriously affect employee's attitudes and have adverse consequences in the long run Timing of Change Timing of introduction of change can have a considerable impact on the resistance. The right time will meet less resistance. Therefore, management must be very careful in choosing the time when the organizational climate is highly favorable to change. An example of right time is immediately after a major improvement in working conditions. EFFORTS AT THE GROUP LEVEL A group is a cluster of persons related in some way by common interests over a period of time. [...]

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