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  1. Definitions
  2. The marketing state of mind
  3. Marketing Management
  4. Internet, a key lever for marketing

First marketing courses were given in the USA at the beginning of the 20th century, in 1902 at the Michigan University by E. Jones and in 1905 in Ohio State University by J. Hagerty. These economists were specialized in agricultural markets. With data from local governments, they taught a mix of distribution, sales, purchase and advertising. Charles Parlin is the first author specialized in marketing. He published a book in 1911, with the very famous sentence: « the customer is king » In France marketing started with the commerce revolution; in 1898 H.Garrigues writes the first book about department stores comparatively to traditional small stores and the role of marketing (especially merchandising) Marketing is omnipresent ? it influences our everyday life.

[...] Perceived costs: modify price perception (review cost) The marketing state of mind Marketing is about an attitude, a state of mind: Meet a consumer need at acceptable retail sales price, advertise promote and give samples to generate trial. Not being blind: customers are loyal to the benefits they get not to products. Staying close to your customers: intellectually and physically. Basing decisions on facts and not opinions or gut feels. Being synthetic and anticipating: contradictory and perishable information. Keeping an eye open on competition: customers switch brands easily. [...]

[...] Communication is essential to adapt to the market and to consumers' needs, ability for a quick and well suited adaptation is key for the marketing. Several major changes during that period: many more industries, longer cycle of production, shorter product life cycle, more critical and educated consumers, and price is no more the key variable of demand. Since the 1980's: the environment is getting more & more prominent (offer > demand) the company is more dependent of external variables: technology, economy, sociology, legislation. The environment is uncertain and unstable. [...]

[...] Dare trying whilst measuring risks: marketing is also about financials. Being consistent: but it is not about never changing. This marketing attitude applies to a very large number of decisions made by a company: Before deciding the production of a product, the marketing attitude means asking oneself which products customers would like to buy (not the products the company would like to manufacture, not the products that the company thinks are the best ones). To fix the price of a product, one will ask how much customers are ready to pay for it (and not how much it costs to produce it). [...]

[...] Marketing evolutions: At the beginning of 20th century: economy based on mass production (Offer < demand) there is no doubt about selling the product, production is the key word, because it produces, the company dominates the customer static vision of the company). The company aims at controlling costs: heavy focus on organization, technical engineers dominate in the company, very few sales functions (limited to orders and basic follow up of customers) mistrust vs competition. During the 1950's/60's: economy focuses more on distribution/selling (Offer = demand but not in all sectors) it is not only about production but also about sales (salesmen are key in the company). [...]

[...] The economic environment has evolved: investors request more profits, industries re-location abroad, economy based on information. New company strategies: competitiveness and competencies are key variables, marketing intelligence answers a crucial need for the company: either technological, or about competition, sales and business, environment, centralized management of projects (limited resources, necessity to increase the speed of adaptation). Social environment: individualism and voluntarism, ethics become more important, especially with ecology. Micro-marketing: development of specific marketings because: consumption becomes more individualized, new technologies/techniques are available. [...]

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