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Study and analysis of extrusion processes

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Types of extrusion.
    1. Direct (forward) extrusion.
    2. Indirect (reverse, inverted or backward) extrusion.
    3. Hydrostatic extrusion.
    4. Impact extrusion.
    5. Polymer extrusion (Screw type).
  3. Classification based on temperature.
    1. Hot extrusion.
    2. Cold extrusion.
    3. Warm extrusion.
  4. Extrusion equipment.
  5. Flow of metal during the process of extrusion.
  6. Extrusion parameters.
  7. Design consideration.
  8. Implementation of screw.
  9. Die cut parts and terminology.
    1. Standards for dimensional tolerances.
    2. Environmental storage conditions.
    3. Dimension terminology.
  10. Benefits and limitations.
  11. Application of extrusion process in tube manufacturing industry.
  12. Straining compound.
    1. Extrusion.
    2. Aging.
    3. Size cutting.
    4. Valve fixing.
    5. Splicing.
    6. Freezing.
    7. Forming.
    8. Curing.
  13. Conclusion.
  14. Bibliography.

Today most of the industries use this Extrusion process, for manufacturing of different components. In this process a block of metal is reduced in cross section by forcing it through a die orifice under high pressure. In general, extrusion is used to produce cylindrical bars or hollow tubes, but shapes of irregular cross-sections may also be produced.

We have carried out the Mini project of study and analysis of extrusion processes at Agarwal rubber .Ltd. located in patancheru, Hyderabad. In this project we studied about the different types of extrusion processes, Classification based on temperature, Extrusion Equipment, different defects occur during the manufacturing of components and their benefits and limitations.

We analyzed different things like Flow of metal during the process of extrusion, Extrusion Parameters, Design Consideration, Implementation of screw where it is applicable in screw type extrusion process only, Die cut parts and terminology. We have studied the application of these processes involved in the manufacturing of the tubes.

[...] Extrusion defect: Some types of metal flow tend to draw surface oxides and impurities toward the center of the billet. This defect is known as extrusion defect, pipe, and tailpipe or fishtailing. A considerable portion of the metal can be rendered useless as an extruded product because of this. This defect can be reduced by modifying the flow pattern to a less inhomogeneous one, such as by controlling friction and minimizing temperature gradients. Another method is to machine the surface of the billet prior to extrusion to eliminate scale and impurities Internal cracking: The center of an extruded product can develop cracks (also known as center burst, center cracking, arrowhead fracture or chevron cracking) due to a state of hydrostatic tensile stress at the centerline of the deformation zone in the die. [...]


[...] Finally, extrusion also offers economic advantages in that the dies are relatively inexpensive and are interchangeable, so that one extrusion machine can be used for the production of a wide variety of sections. A metal billet heated to the appropriate temperature is fed into the cylindrical container of the extrusion press and is forced by the action of a ram through a steel die whose orifice has the desired shape to produce the solid or hollow section. The metal emerges from the die as a continuous bar, which is cut to the required lengths. [...]


[...] The general extrusion tooling assembly is designed for easy replacement of damaged parts and for reworking and reuse of components of the tooling. Extrusion Press Design Feature: 1. Integrated compact construction occupying less space Pre-compressed column-tensioned tie rod design having the following advantages over simple tie rod press. Quick pressure development during extrusion and upset operations. Rapid & smooth de-compression after extrusion. Minimizes/nullifies displacement of end platen due to elongation of tie rods. Minimizes/nullifies variation in tie rod stresses, thus eliminating 'fatigue' failures. [...]

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