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Objectives and Importance of the WTO to Open and Develop New Commercial Markets

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  1. The objectives of the WTO
    1. Why is the WTO an interesting instrument?
    2. WTO's advantages
  2. The importance of the WTO to open and develop new commercial markets
    1. What are these new markets?
    2. How does WTO take into account the new markets?
    3. Limitations of the WTO's interest in new markets
  3. Serious limits of the organization
    1. Where the problems are
    2. Why did the Ministerial Conference of Seattle fail?

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization which governs the rules of international trade between countries. Today, new markets are appearing thanks to developing countries, who also want to take part in free trade. Therefore, it is important to know how the WTO will integrate these new markets. The already developed countries, the developing countries and the less-developed countries cannot be managed in the same way. WTO has to take into account these elements to try to find the best arrangements for each category of country. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was founded in 1995. The basis of this commercial system was established in 1947 with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). GATT was formed after eight rounds of negotiations. The last round, known as the Uruguay Round, began in 1986 and finished in 1995, with the establishment of the WTO, signed in Marrakech. The aim of the WTO is to promote free trade and stimulate economic growth. Thus, the WTO sets the rules of the world trading system and tries to solve conflicts linked to commercial issues between its state members. The WTO agreements deal with agriculture, textile, banking, clothing, industrial standards, food sanitation regulations, etc. The agreements are set up according to some multilateral trading system principles. Treating people equally is the main idea of this principle (most-favored nation principle).

[...] WTO rules require that laws and regulations designed to advance the interests of the worker, consumer, environmental, health, security, human rights, protection of animals or other non-trade concerns, are applied as "the least restrictive possible for trade." Then, the WTO deregulates and promotes the development of world trade so active rather than regulate. Its principles are oriented in order to facilitate global trade at the expense of efforts to promote local economic development, and policies that advance communities, countries and regions towards greater autonomy. [...]

[...] This shows that the United States seek to impose their own standards as international standards and seeking new markets for their GMO produced by their biotechnology companies. This case illustrates how free trade can take precedence over other considerations such as public health, consumer rights and environmental protection. It also highlights the power of enterprises in the WTO system. The WTO, the instrument of rich and powerful countries The WTO claims that it is run by its members, in other words, by their governments, and that all decisions are taken by them, and not by businesses or the WTO itself. [...]

[...] An Advisory Centre on WTO Law was established in 2001 in order to assist and to help developing countries in the management of complex trade disputes. The goal is to let them fully understand their rights and their obligations under the WTO agreement. WTO's advantages Negotiations around agriculture Since the Uruguay Round, agricultural produce has been integrated into the negotiations. The Agreement of Uruguay constituted a considerable change. First of all, by extending to the agricultural sector the rule by which the customs duties are a form of privileged protection. [...]

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