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Why is technology so difficult to implement and manage?

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  1. The implementation of a technology is uncertain and complex
    1. The implementation is an expensive and uncertain process
    2. The introduction and the management of a technology is complex because it interacts with several elements
  2. The keys to introduce and manage a technology successfully
    1. The necessity to adopt an overall view of the technology: the use of frameworks
    2. The key role of managers
    3. The necessity to do a pilot in order to limit the learning costs
    4. The necessity to involve all the relevant stakeholders

No one can deny the impact of technology as a source of competitive advantage for a firm. The introduction of a new technology or the development and the commercialization of a new product or service are done with the aim of increasing business benefits. They allow costs savings, and improve the productivity and the efficiency of the organization. They also allow a better allocation of resources within the firm and this rationalization of the means of production benefits the customers too. However technology is not simply a black box. The implementation and the management of technology within a company may sometimes fail. Implementation was defined by Swanson as "a decision-making activity that converts a design concept into an operating reality so as to provide value to the client". Besides it is worth saying that implementation is an iterative process that has an impact on many aspects of the firm. The cultural and organizational aspects have to be taken into account as well as the technological issues.

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