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Ready garment export after the multi fiber agreement with a reference to India

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  1. Introduction
  2. Industry profile
  3. Research methodology
  4. The structure of the textile and clothing sector
  5. Globalization and garment industry in India
  6. The cost structure of the clothing industries, selected countries
  7. The cost structure of the textile industries, selected countries
  8. Global trade: India's competitive performance
  9. India's competitive performance in the US market
  10. India's competitiveness in EU market
  11. Multi fibre agreement
    1. Outcomes under the MFA and ATC
  12. Decline in competitiveness
    1. Lack of marketing links
  13. Future scenario of the clothing industry
    1. Targets aimed at the National Textiles Policy (2000)
    2. Steps taken by the Indian government to enhance competitiveness
  14. Conclusions and implications
  15. Questionnaire analysis
  16. Bibliography

The foundations of the Indian textile trade with other countries began as early as the second century BC. The silk fabric was a popular item of Indian exports to Indonesia around the 13th century, where these were used as barter for spices. Towards the end of the 17th century, the British East India Company had begun exports of Indian silks and various other cotton fabrics to other countries. These included the famous fine Muslin cloth of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. The trade in painted and printed cottons or chintz, a favorite in the European market at that time, was extensively practiced between India, China, Java and the Philippines, long before the arrival of the Europeans. The textile industry's predominant presence in the Indian economy is manifest in its significant contribution to the industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. Currently, it adds about 14 percent to the industrial production and about 2.4 percent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It provides employment to about 35 million work force. Together with allied agricultural sector, it provides employment to over 82 million people by the end of the tenth plan period. The contribution of this industry to the gross export earnings is over 23 percent while it adds only three percent to the gross import bill of the country. It has been estimated that India has approximately 30,000 ready made garment manufacturing units in the country. It is the only industry which is self-reliant, from raw material to the highest value added products viz. garments/ made-ups.

[...] As can be noticed, almost all of Indian garment exports to the US are leaders, or gainers, only exception being 340 which is expected to be a loser. The competitive situation in textiles is contrasting vis-à-vis the US market. It is very clear that except made-ups- which are the leaders in the USA- Indian textile export to the US has no future. And that is very much along expected lines. All important textile product categories are outliers, but not losers. [...]

[...] With the WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing providing a scheduled removal of MFA quotas over the decade little global change relating to quota phase-out took place during the early stages of the Agreement. As was illustrated earlier, the flexibility granted by the ATC, together with the level and coverage of products on which it was based, meant that the integration of sectoral trade with normal GATT disciplines took place only much later. Considering also that the sector is highly mobile, certainly when compared with other production sectors, both producers and buyers (retailers) felt little pressure to reorganize production or sourcing decisions. [...]

[...] The future potential of the ready made garments market lies in companies trying to change consumer perception and help them make a transition from tailor-made clothes to ready-to-wear clothing. This requires investment in infrastructure to increase quality and design and also advertising brand management. CHAPTER-2 GLOBAL TRADE : INDIA'S COMPETITIVE PERFORMANCE During the MFA period, the textile exporters from industrial countries and those from developing countries merely changed shares between themselves during the 24 years period. The share of industrial countries declined by almost as much ( 19.2 as was the gain in the share of developing countries ( 18.8 Clothing exporters13, however, exhibit significant changes, with the share of top 13 exporters having declined by New entrants have come in as well as some old ones have been knocked out. [...]

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