A Comparison of the economic and social structures of China, India and Malaysia
India: Since the late 1990s, India has made several efforts to contain high inflation. The average inflation rate has been divided by three. The IMF says that from 1992 to 2001 India had an average inflation rate of 4.3%. China: Another contradiction of China is its lack of inflation when the economy was actually in deflation over the past decade.
Today, inflation has reappeared in China since 2002 but remained low (approximately 3%). Malaysia: Following the 1997 crisis, the Malaysian government has set a real exchange control, to restore the situation, particularly in terms of inflation. In fact, Malaysia is the first of the "tigers" to regain investor confidence. It has managed to maintain a low inflation rate. In 2002, the inflation rate was 1.9%.
Comparison of levels of inflation in the three countries: Since the Asian crisis, the interference of the governments of three countries in the monetary sector, financial sector and exchange controls, help to contain inflation. However, the liberalization is underway and it is also vital for China to complete its transition to a capitalist economy.
The three governments always set the prices of certain products and central banks are not independent. Since 1997, capital flows continue to be subject to restrictive regulations, with an intensity that differs between a greater or lesser degree according to the country.
Malaysia tends to be more and more to let the market work alone, while China continues to regulate the market strongly. India is mid-way between the two and the government controls the capital outflows from residents.
China: Contradicting the stability of official figures, unemployment has risen rapidly in the second half of the 1990s under the weight of the restructuring of state industry and the demographic effect. It is now about 10% in urban areas, and the struggle becomes one of the primary concerns of the country.
India: Changes in the unemployment rate keeps falling, however, there is still high in 2002 it is still more than 9%.
Malaysia: The unemployment rate in Malaysia is around 3.5% today, which is quite low for an emerging country.
India: External debt fell relative to GDP, the share of short-term debt is also reduced. Domestic debt is, in turn, 48% of GDP. But the high interest rates caused by the size of public deficits are a risk of speculation on the instruments of debt management. The growth stimulation caused a rupture of the Indian financial balances. An adjustment program supported by the IMF and the World Bank has been implemented to clean up and structural reform public finances.
Malaysia: In 2001, with $ 43 billion of debt, Malaysian companies were vulnerable. Today, the financial restructuring has enabled the country to enjoy a low debt service, a ratio of long-term debt / short-term balanced: the Standard and Poor rating favorably relative risk in the country with a BBB + stable outlook.
China: In 2001, China was among countries with the most heavily indebted with foreign debt reached $ 110 billion. Today, according to the Chinese authorities, the situation has recovered and is even relatively healthy with 15% of GDP.
Tags: Malaysia; India; China; economic growth; social structure