Demography of Vietnam and Policy of Birth-Control
- The operations of annihilation: Actions tailored to the strategic problems of the revolutionary war
- Problems and specific features of the Red Army
- The dualism of operations of annihilation:The weakening of the enemy combined to strengthen the Red Army
- The refusal of passivity: necessary condition for the implementation of the actions of annihilation
- The role of the population for the military offensive
- The number and mobility for the success of the offensive
Marked during the last century by two major wars that opposed the two world superpowers, Western France and the United States, Vietnam was a country that had resisted and overcome its enemies by mobilizing its people. In fact, since the beginning of the occupation of Cochinchina in 1858 by the French Admiral, who had seized Saigon, until the end of its colonization in 1954 by the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu in May, and the Geneva Accords that separated the two countries in July of that year, the Vietnamese had never accepted the colonization of their lands by France.
The opposition took root in the higher social classes such as Mandarin, the bourgeoisie and the intellectual students of the time. After his ascension to the head of the Vietnamese government as chairman of the new State on March 2, 1946, Ho Chi Minh, founder of the Front for Independence of Vietnam in 1941, began a war against France in order to regain Cochinchina. This was the beginning of the Indochina War. By 1949, France had recognized full independence of the country and then fought against the Viet Minh, and linked Vietnam to Ho Chi Minh, who ended the war by winning the battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
The country was divided into two following the Geneva Conference of July 1954, which allowed the election to decide the political regime to be adopted. Thus the north of the border was demarcated by the Ben Hoi River, and the 17th parallel was the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and south of this demarcation was the Republic of Vietnam. The second Vietnam War began in 1960, and ended in 1975, opposing the communist north to the south of Vietnam joined by the United States.
The northern capital became Hanoi, where Ho Chi Minh governed. Supported by communist countries like the USSR and China, Vietnam kept failing in its attempts at land reforms because of overcrowding and the sudden and radical methods employed by the government. In October 1956, Ho Chi Minh was also the secretary of the Workers Party and continued the struggle for the spread of Communism. After his death in September 1969, he was replaced by Ton Duc Thang, who acted according to the regime of his predecessor.
To the south was the capital Saigon, and Diem Ngo Dhin was the head of government. Supported by the United States, he imposead an authoritarian regime and developed a constitution in July 1956. Facing the displeasure and opposition Nationalists, Communists and Buddhists, and following many violent uprisings, Ngo Dhin Diem suffered its authoritarianism, its proximity to Catholicism and its alliance along with the United States and it disappeared with a military coup in November 1963 leading to his assassination. Therefore, there were successive military governments of political instability, until the arrival to power of Nguyen Van Thieu in June 1965, which was openly supported by the United States government.
Tags: Ho Chi Minh, Ton Duc Thang, Nguyen Van Thieu, Republic of Vietnam