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Workers' struggles and trade unionism in Europe after 1945

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  1. History of the French army
  2. Organization and composition of the French army
  3. The Army
  4. The Air Force
  5. Navy
  6. The National Gendarmerie
  7. The news of the French army
  8. Conclusion

In Latin countries and the Mediterranean, particularly in France and Italy, the diversity of association is greater than in the countries of northern and central Europe. The class struggle unionism Communist-inspired undoubtedly occupies positions higher than anywhere else. The employers' intransigence blends tradition with the intransigence workers, which tends to underestimate the share of contract policy.

In France after the Liberation, the labor unions played a role in the life of the nation, a place hitherto unparalleled. Many union members were of local resistance committees. Release Enterprises had emerged everywhere, and some companies (Fuga in Beziers, Berliet Lyon, Mines Ales) were even self-managed.

New opportunities opened to unions between 1944 and 1946 with the nationalization of coal, gas, electricity, banks of deposit, insurance companies, airlines as well as the creation of social security. The management of these organizations was associated with the elected staff representatives of the union lists. The creation of work councils in 1945 responds to the desire for the representation of employees. In July 1946, in CGT where communist influence became predominant, employees got an increment of 20%. Given the context, however, it is important to note that the French unions represented the voice of moderation until 1947.

In Italy, in the fellowship of the struggle for liberation from 1943 was to forge Italian trade union, sanctioned by the Pact of Rome, in June 9, 1944 which creates a single trade union struggle in which the social unionism and communists are on the one hand, and Christians and Republicans on the other. The unitary character and spirit of responsibility in a difficult economic climate in the organization quickly provide a broad representation: about 5 million members in 1947. The communist is casting its influence within the organization unit rapidly : it represents 59% of the vote in the internal elections of June 1947.

The general context is first marked by the radicalization of the international situation and the beginning of the real Cold War and events in France fit into this framework. From 22 to 27 September 1947, a secret meeting held between representatives of nine communist parties, including Italian and French parties. It was a takeover by the Russians, the Communist parties in the context of a struggle against capitalism that was more pronounced. To quote the third secretary of the CPSU, Zhdanov, "The world was now absolutely divided into two antagonistic camps ." No more alliance was possible with other leftist political parties.

The first problems arose from the economic and social development.The reconstruction had not really started, or at least one did not see the effects. Communications remained highly uncertain, lack of money was obvious, and production was reduced.

In addition, the very hard winter of 1946-1947 necessitated on the one hand large amounts of coal,and on the other hand, destroyed an important part of the harvest by freezing . Within a year, retail prices doubled. To continue operating, public companies increased their prices in considerable proportions. Production collapsed. The crisis touched the food itself. As during the war, ration cards still existed, but they do allow for reasonable amounts that were still low. The bakeries were closed three days a week. One could not find grain in France.

Tags: Trade unions in Europe after 1945; struggles faced by the workers; events leading upto the formation of these unions in Italy and France;

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