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Bretton Woods Institutions (IMF and World Bank): history and Modern situation

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  1. Bretton-Woods: the settlement of the two main economic institutions the IMF and the World bank
    1. Economic contexts
    2. The conference of Bretton Woods: creation of a new international monetary system
    3. he creation of the IMF and of the IBRD (ex World bank)
  2. The World Bank and IMF, two economical institutions
    1. The IMF institution
    2. What is the World Bank today?
  3. Legitimacy of the Institutions in financial crisis
    1. The World Bank and the IMF in the debt's crisis of the Third World:
    2. Internal crisis: how to lean the lack of credibility of the WB?
    3. Consequence of crises: questioning of their actions

To overcome the chaos and the devastations caused by the Second World War, Countries had to set up new institutions liable to restore a stable international order. This reconstruction was led by the United States of America and its allies. From 1941, in the Atlantic chart, the allies wanted to reaffirm the freedom principles concerning navigation, international transactions and the raw materials access. In 1945, this liberalist thought beneficed from the dominant influence of the USA and it also coincided with the interest of the United States of America. In fact, the huge national production of the US asked for huge exterior open markets. Moreover, conscious of its economic position linked to the war, the American bankers wanted to be reimbursed through non devaluated money. That is why, the USA desired to elaborate a new economic and international system.

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