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Impact of Herberg and Maslow’s theories in organizations

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  1. Introduction
  2. Herzberg's theory of motivators and hygiene factors
  3. Research methodology
  4. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  5. Herzberg's theory: Frederick Herzberg's motivation and hygiene factors
  6. TCLP study in relation to Herzberg's theory
  7. Herberg's two factor theory
  8. Types of theories
    1. Need-based theories
    2. Process based theory
    3. Individual-organizational goal-congruence theories
  9. An overview of satisfaction and dissatisfaction
  10. Alderfer's ERG theory
  11. Motivations in organizations
  12. The Japanese approach to motivation
  13. A study of theories on employee motivation
  14. Strategies of motivating employees
  15. Findings of the study
  16. Conclusion
  17. Bibliography

Among various behavioral theories generally believed and embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg, a psychologist, proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees. Maslow, a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg's, developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs. These theories are widely cited in the business literature.
In the education profession, however, researchers in the '80s raised questions about the applicability of Maslow's and Herzberg's theories to elementary and secondary school teachers: Do educators, in fact, fit the profiles of the average business employee? That is, do teachers (1) respond to the same motivators that Herzberg associated with employees in profit-making businesses and (2) have the same needs patterns as those uncovered by Maslow in his studies of business employees?

This digest first provides brief outlines of the Herzberg and Maslow theories. It then summarizes a study by members of the Tennessee Career Ladder Program (TCLP). This study found evidence that the teachers in the program do not match the behavior of people employed in business. Specifically, the findings disagree with Herzberg in relation the importance of money as a motivator and, with Maslow in regard to the position of esteem in a person's hierarchy of needs.

Herzberg (1959) constructed a two-dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people's attitudes about work. He concluded that such factors as company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary are hygiene factors rather than motivators. According to the theory, the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction..

Tags: Herzberg and Maslow's philosophy, Helzberg and Maslow's theories, Herzberg and Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg and Maslow's ideas

[...] Dr John How can content and process theories of motivation be used by managers in todays' organizations? Illustrate your answer with examples. Below is a short sample of the essay "How can content and process theories of motivation be used by managers in todays' organizations? city it is hard relating it to the workplace. This is based on the difficulty of identifying where each employee is positioned in the hierarchy. Process theories however emphasize on the cognitive processes in determining his or her level of motivation. [...]

[...] Theory Z has been adapted and modified for use in a number of organizations. One adaptation involves workers in decisions through quality circles, which are small groups, usually having five to eight members who discuss ways to reduce waste, eliminate problems, and improve quality, communication, and work satisfaction. Even more involved are programs known by such terms as participative management, employee involvement, or self- directed work teams, which strive to give employees more control over their jobs while making them more responsible for the outcome of their efforts. [...]

[...] A study of industrial employees, conducted by Kovach (1987), yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: interesting work, full appreciation of work done, and feeling of being in on things. Another study of employees, conducted by Harpaz (1990), yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, and job security. In this study and the two cited above, interesting work ranked as the most important motivational factor. Pay was not ranked as one of the most important motivational factors by Kovach (1987), but was ranked second in this research and by Harpaz (1990). [...]

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