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The persecutions: The political and military commitment

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  1. The persecutions
  2. The political and military commitment
  3. Possession of Punjab and political organization
  4. Conclusion

In 1738, the region came under the control of the Afghan leader Nadir Shah of Iran .It return to hostilities, that Sikhs call ghalughara (Holocaust). In 1762 he destroyed Amritsar, seen as a symbol of the complete victory of Islam. This is the Wadde Ghalughara (second Holocaust). However it remained illusory because Sikhs soon after regained the ruins of the temple and drove out the Afghan. The Mughal Empire was initiated to a slow decline. In 1765, Sikhs were to be solidly united. This is the chief Ranjit Singh who undertook to create the political unity of the community. He divided Punjab into twelve principalities.

In 1789, he established the age of 19 Sikh state in Punjab. He took advantage of the disintegration of the empire to take over the Punjab. Ranjit Singh was regarded as a great warrior particular where Emily Eden writer said "it was a little old gray mouse perched on a throne: short, deformed, blind and illiterate" In 1806, the British authorities of eastern India Company (founded in 1600) negotiated borders to the territory Sikh and British possessions. In 1813 it was the height of the Sikh community with the victory of Ranjit Singh in the Afghan army. This had a national echo in India where he was for the first time an awareness of the victory of a minority Muslim army authorities .From 1822, the leader Ranjit Singh knew establish the influence of the Sikh kingdom up 'in Kashmir and Afghanistan, taking the Himalayas, the Indus and the Sutlej. For more than eight hundred years, the Punjab was first directed at the unity of a native chief.

[...] The Sikh community is undergoing a real change in the century from religious entity to social and military group. The persecution of the Sikhs were a turning point in the history of Sikhism. Political and military institutions are developments that found meaning in the evolution of the Sikh doctrine. The peaceful beginning, she will become militant. The political and military commitment A became military brotherhood; the Khalsa In the XVIII th century, the tenth Guru Gobind Singh organized them either in Sikh religious community but military brotherhood. He knew that his followers needed a stronger organization. [...]


[...] The action was repeated four times. The five volunteers eventually sortire the tent. There was a kahtri, caste shopkeepers, a Jat caste of warrior-farmers and three Sudra of the lowest caste. These five men were the symbol of equality among Sikhs. The guru had indeed murdered several goats. He thus formed the nucleus of an egalitarian brotherhood. The origin of the Khalsa can not be more crucial is the importance of his doctrine, values make the Khalsa a reference model for Sikhs. [...]


[...] This is thanks to the twenty years of peace that the Sikh community reached such power and such wealth. Which forced Britain to live deadly wars to finally annex the Sikhterritory. Bibliography Tools: Dictionary of Eastern wisdom, Paris, Robert Laffont, October 1991 From Houtre Michael, Encyclopedia of Religion Volume Sikhs under dir. Frederic Lenoir and Ysé T.Masquelier, Lonrai Bayard edition, November 1991 Harbans Singh, Dictionary of Religions, Paris, PUF, January 1984 Joanne O'Brien and Martin Palmer, Atlas of World Religions, China, other Edition 1994 Fiction: Jean-Alphonse Bernard, of the Indian Empire to the Republic of India (1935 to present), Paris, Imprimerie Nationale Editions, coll Our Century 1994 Cattle Michel, History of India, Paris, PUF, coll What do I know? [...]

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