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Difficulties of the application of the edict of tolerance in Africa

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  1. A family that is closely linked with the US authorities
    1. A strong commitment to the American political and economic life
    2. The incarnation of the "model family" in the American myth of the Kennedys
  2. A controversial ?clan?
    1. The hidden faces of the Kennedy clan
    2. The end of a myth?

Our study will be conducted through the analysis of two texts dating from the fourth century AD. It is written by two bishops, Eusebius of Caesarea and of Optatus Milev. We will discuss here a central theme in the history of the Roman Empire: that of religion and specifically Christianity, in an important region of empire, Africa. In the early fourth century, and throughout the empire, the African provinces were areas where major political and religious upheavals took place. Christianity was already prevalent for two centuries in this region of the empire. It brought in major changes and disruptions in a few decades and brought with it a range of actors and issues that goes beyond the religious issues to the political offices. The two documents, that are presented here are related, and will allow us to explore and explain these upheavals as well as developments in Roman Africa during the fourth century. The first is an excerpt from the Ecclesiastical History written by the Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, Eusebius. Prelate, born in 265, was an active theologian and historian who was very biased in favor of the large Catholic Church and his friend was the emperor Constantine. This extract is none other than the transcript of a letter of Constantine (emperor from 306 to 337) in 313 that was addressed to Anulinus, the Governor of Africa. The second document is a text, dated from about 366 AD and is an extract of the Parmenian work written by the Bishop of Milevis in Numidia, Optatus. Here, it is a speech addressed to Parmenian in making the index of the thoughts and actions of the latter in 345 AD. The actions that we see in this study are very biased and pro Catholic. These two extracts are separated in time, by nearly 30 years. While this will require a broadening of the study with reminders of important events before or intermediaries to better understand the context of each document, the interest of this relationship is the ability to analyze the evolution of African Christianity during this period. These two extracts are also biased and subjective in their contexts.

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