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Commercial revolution in the Eighteenth Century and America

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Between the sixteenth and the eighteenth century, Europe went through an economic expansion, and established colonies all over the world, as part of its Commercial Revolution. This commercial revolution was replaced by the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century. The European countries namely Spain, the Netherlands, the French and the English established many colonies in various countries. The English established colonies in North America, India and Australia. These colonies were not allowed to engage in their own trade independently. They were established to provide raw materials, customers and investment opportunities to the mother country. Thus, the trade sector exhibited the European tutelage to the world.

The trade relationship between the mother country and its colonies is interesting, as it is in a paradoxical situation. The trade relations would strengthen the link between the mother country and the colonies, but not to the extent of granting freedom to the colony. This relationship was important historically, as it gave rise to feelings of national consciousness, thereby sparking freedom movements. Thus, between 1720 and 1780, Europe occupied a important position in world trade.

In 1720, it controlled two thirds of world trade, and in 1780, it controlled three fourths of the world trade. Many European nations like Spain, England, the Netherlands, Scotland, and France began to colonize the American continent. These colonizers came with highly developed military and naval abilities, and also good entrepreneurship. The United States remained a colony of the British Empire till it declared its independence as one nation on July 4, 1776..

Traffic along the Iberian Atlantic routes between the late fifteenth century to 1630 was concentrated in a single maritime region: the " Andalusia Canary" dominated by Seville, who became "not a city but a world," and where was established the Casa de contractación (Chamber of Commerce ) founded in 1503; its role was to control all traffic between the West Indies and the mainland.

Several reasons are cited to explain this decline, which affects both volumes that benefits all down, which is a fundamental for the study of the Americas, to the extent that the Spanish territories have the largest in the subcontinent.

Recall that since the mid-sixteenth century (1561), the Spanish had formally established routes (Carrera de Indias), and a navigation system in convoys (floating). In order for maritime traffic to be away from privateers and pirates, the Casa de contractación banned from 1526, Atlantic crossings without protection and in 1543, a royal decision mandated navigation convoys.

For added security, departures were at the same time, late spring or early summer. In the mid-sixteenth century fleets consisted of 15 to 20 merchant ships and even up to 75 ships traveled together at the beginning of the next century in a specific order and strict discipline to the Lesser Antilles (Dominica and Désirade), from which they separated (one part to Mexico by the Greater Antilles, and the other to the mainland). In order to better control traffic, only four ports had America's authority to receive the vessels: Veracruz, Cartagena, Nombre de Dios and Portobello.

Tags: Veracruz, Cartagena, Nombre de Dios and Portobello, Iberian Atlantic routes

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