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A North-South interface in Mediterranean space

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  1. Introduction
  2. The Dilemma of Britain
    1. A real lack of interest in Europe
    2. An ambiguous response or 'Cordial bail'
  3. The need to protect Britain's global interests
    1. Europe against Commonwealth
    2. Europe against the rest of the world
  4. The need to channel this plan was said to be too ambitious
    1. Insert the plan in the League
    2. Too rapid?

The study area corresponds to the area that borders the Mediterranean ("sea surrounded by land"), from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Bosphorus Strait. It is a semi-enclosed sea that communicates with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, and since the digging of the Suez Canal (1869), with the Red Sea. This sea is at the crossroads of three continents, Europe, Asia and Africa. The unity of the basin is because of a similar climate (hot dry summers, wet winters), which imposes severe constraints everywhere, especially the summer drought (water stress), the presence of a mountainous terrain, and a landscape marked by olives, oaks, and scrubland (markers climate). A space of confrontation and contacts since ancient times, it was driven by contacts between the shores of the Mediterranean (trade, military expeditions, Greek colonies etc.).

The Roman Empire gave political unity, but its decline and the surge of Islam opened a long period of confrontation between Christian and Muslim States (Arab-Muslim thrust at the beginning of the 8th century in Spain and France then pushed Christian Spain, "Reconquista" and the Crusades from the 11th century). The colonization and decolonization were further periods of tension. This space is now a major interface of the global space. We observe that the facts fall within the scope of interpenetration and cleavage, and are marked by breaks, exchanges, and a set of amendments by the other. To what extent does the situation of the Mediterranean interface lead to territorial restructuring?

The Mediterranean area is crossed by major fault lines of the contemporary world. One can contrast a developed and rich industrialized Mediterranean (high HDI) to the developing Mediterranean, poorer weakly industrialized south. The Mediterranean area is characterized by the asymmetry between one pole of the Triad, Europe and North Africa and the Middle East. This space at very uneven economic dynamism, is dominated by three countries that make up the "Latin arc", Spain, France and Italy.

In north-western Mediterranean, a few countries, Spain, France, Italy, Greece, are part of developed countries with very high standard of living while in the north-east there is an asymmetrical development with countries that are have low HDI (Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Albania). The Southern and Eastern Mediterranean ("MENA"), are in fact characterized by their extreme diversity. The Mediterranean region does not contain PMA but the inequality between Turkey (considered to have strong industrial potential), Libya, which benefits from oil revenues and countries like Morocco, Algeria, Egypt are apparent.In the Mediterranean area, the fracture is both north/south and east/west.

Cleavage in demographic fault line is most obvious. From a demographic perspective, we can contrast the countries of the North Shore who have completed their demographic transition and have low fertility (1.2 children per woman in Italy, Spain, Greece) and MENA countries that maintain high fertility (3.5 children per woman in Egypt, Libya - 3.7) and population growth, greater than 2% per year.

The consequences of different rates of growth: In the countries of the North Shore, the fertility decline ("baby bust") causes aging of the population ("baby-boom"); in MENA countries, high fertility has led to a population growth of 150% in half a century. Uncontrolled population growth creates problems of employment, schooling, housing and stimulates strong migration flows from south to north.

Tags: population growth, demographic transition, MENA, Crusades

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