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  1. Factors leading to displacement
  2. The extent to which mass displacement or migration can cause or exacerbate conflict
  3. Security risks faced by IDPS and refugees
  4. Risks associated with migration
  5. How the above contribute to outbreak/escalation of conflict
  6. Positive side-effect of migration

This essay discusses the relationship between conflict and migration. It focuses on IDPs (internally displaced persons) and refugees, mostly leaving out the motives of economic or social migration. The first chapter states factors that cause displacement, followed by a discussion about the extent to which mass displacement or migration can cause or exacerbate conflict. The second part treats the security risks faced by IDPs and refugees including the risks for communities, which is associated with migration, focusing on how they contribute to outbreak/escalation of conflict, giving counterarguments to the discussion. The last part states additional reasons for migration apart from conflict.

[...] Ethnical affiliation can create or avoid problems between refugees and the host nation. An example for successful integration is the three million Afghan refugees of Pashtun origin who settled among fellow Pashtun communities in Pakistan. Throughout their settlement there the process was largely peaceful (WDR 2011, P 11, 17). However, ethnical affiliation can also threaten the social peace as an influx of one ethnical group, as seen in Macedonia, when Kosovo-Albanians looked for refuge there in the 1990s and the social structure was thrown out of balance (WDR 2011, P.11). [...]

[...] One country strongly affected by this mass migration is Lebanon. In itself a rather fragile state Lebanon is fighting to cope with the influx of refugees from Syria into mostly northern Lebanon. This creates conflict between the resident Lebanese population and the Syrian refugees which results in attacks on the Syrians and anger about political non- decisions by the Lebanese government amongst the Lebanese population (Ferris WDR 2011, P. 14). At the outbreak of the war, Lebanon was welcoming refugees. [...]

[...] Terrorism is today one of the biggest global issues, which may never cease due to migration inevitability. Borders are often opened for members of terrorist organisations using refugee groups to disguise within to avoid detection at border control. This aspect continues to be a major risk associated with migration. Another is the degradation of the natural environment including the depletion of arable land, strain on water supply, higher greenhouse gas emissions. How the above contribute to outbreak/escalation of conflict Typically, the sudden influx of masses leads to higher strain on economy of host nation. [...]

[...] In million persons were newly displaced because of conflict or persecution, whereof 8,2 million within and 2,5 million across borders. For IDPs this is the highest number on record, for refugees this is the highest number of new arrivals since 1994 (Global Trends 2013, P.2). Worldwide the combined number of IDPs, refugees and asylum seekers amounts to 51,2 million people[1] (Global Trends 2013, P.2). When it comes to analysing the generic term IDP it is important to notice that there is no agreed upon criteria when and under which circumstances an IDP should be or should no longer be called such (The Brookings Institution 2007, P3). [...]

[...] Positive side-effect of migration The positive side effects of migration discussed in this essay will only focus on the conflict-induced migration. Naturally, there is also migration happening for other reasons, such as better economic opportunities elsewhere or better access to (in some cases free) education, societal reasons such as family members in another region that already provide a stable network when first arriving as a migrant. However, these will not be discussed in this essay. Despite the reputation of only bringing pain onto the host nation, there are examples of the positive impact refugees have on the host nation and society by creating opportunities for the host nation as well as the refugees (WDR 2011). [...]

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