Agricultural spaces in Southeast Asia
- Its development over the years
- It economic policy
Today, agriculture in the Southeast Asian mainland and the island is, in terms of production and exports, one of the largest in the world. There are several types of agricultural areas that are managed with different strategies. The farmland in ASE is traditionally dominated by the cultivation of paddy which meets the challenge of food and has led to the population explosion of the Green Revolution, coupled with two other types in farming, clearing and planting. These three areas are developed in different countries, depending on the economic strategy that is adopted by states, and coaching is the subject of these different cultures and different peoples.
Agricultural areas in South-eastern areas are dominated by rice. Paddy cultivation is an inherited tradition spanning several millennia and constitutes the predominant eating habit of people in Southeast Asia. Rice, in fact, forms the bulk of the caloric intake. We must therefore understand that paddy cultivation is essential in South-east, which is why the population explosion has forced states to manage the food challenge. In fact, we had to increase the quantities of rice production in Southeast Asia, and this reason has been put in place in the process of the green revolution.
The green revolution also means development of agricultural research on high-yielding varieties (IRRI is the organization that manages Rice Research) and plant protection products, and rural electrification. However, when it comes to the flooded or irrigated rice, the green revolution is not homogeneous. All countries are not at the same point in the development of this strategy. One can think, for example, of Laos, which does not have access yet to this process of modernization of cultures. And even if countries are affected by the green revolution, it is not necessarily a success everywhere.
Indeed, it is necessary to distinguish between a quantitative success in the countries concerned, and a qualitative success. The productions are not equally distributed, and the use of various chemicals assumes a certain literacy level among the peasantry, which is often inadequate owing to severe lack of information and training.
But these areas are experiencing major upheavals in a new cultural era where money takes precedence over land ownership. South East Asia, in the last century, was marked by a profound decline in the forest to cultivated areas. This phenomenon is closely linked to economic openness in the region that has become an exporter of agricultural products during the colonial period initially, and then after the Second World War. The plantations were originally located along the spice route taken by Arab merchants and connecting the Moluccas in the Middle East through the Strait of Malacca. Thus, regions that are still the most marked by agriculture plantations agriculture are those of the west coast of the Malay Peninsula and the northeast side of Sumatra on both sides of the strait.
New forms of agricultural production and new agricultural landscapes appeared to be due to a voluntary action of States and great capitalist enterprises, or by "spontaneous evolution" in use of new technology in farming.
Tags: Paddy cultivation, Southeast Asian mainland, rural electrification