Desert and desertification in Africa
- The operations of annihilation: Actions tailored to the strategic problems of the revolutionary war
- Problems and specific features of the Red Army
- The dualism of operations of annihilation:The weakening of the enemy combined to strengthen the Red Army
- The refusal of passivity: necessary condition for the implementation of the actions of annihilation
- The role of the population for the military offensive
- The number and mobility for the success of the offensive
General figures not specific to Africa: The desert gains nearly 6 million hectares per year, and this advance covers sixty countries, which include a billion people. The problem is especially acute in countries such as China (Gobi Desert), Brazil (Nordeste), Australia, Chile (Atacama), Pakistan, etc. Africa is the continent with the largest continental tropical deserts (Sahara, Namib, Kalahari, Eastern Ogaden, the Horn of Africa) where the recent developments of the drought have been most severe, causing the displacement of at least 10 million 'environmental refugees' in 1985, mostly in the semi arid Sahel (extending from Senegal to Ethiopia).