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The history of the Mediterranean 1798-1956

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  1. Chronology of the Mediterranean (1798 to 1956) (about ENS 2010)
  2. Napoleon's expedition to Egypt (1798)
  3. The battle of the Nile (Battle of Aboukir Bay, August 1799)
  4. The Siege of Malta by the British (1800)
  5. French support for the Christians of the Orient (1801)
  6. The Tripolitan Wars (1st August 1801)
  7. The French Capitulation in Egypt and the Anglo French treaty of Peace (October 1801)
  8. The surrender of Menou
  9. Ottoman occupation of Egypt (1805)
  10. Franco-Ottoman Alliance (1805)
  11. The Battle of Lissa (1811)
  12. Occupation of the holy cities by the Wahhabis
  13. Battle of Trafalgar
  14. The Tsar against Napoleon (December 2 1805)
  15. Dardanelles operation
  16. The Accession of Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (1806)
  17. The occupation of the Ionian Islands by the British (1809)
  18. Treaty of Bucharest (28 May 1812)
  19. The Greek War of Independence
  20. Major events of the Greek War of independence
  21. The Spanish political scenario
  22. The Crimean War
  23. The history of Lebanon
  24. Italian Imperialism in the Ethiopian context
  25. Khedive Ismail and Panslavism
  26. Anglo French naval convention 1912
  27. Dardanelles campaign 1915
  28. Treaty of London (1915)
  29. Lawrence of Arabia (General Allenby)
  30. Treaty of Versailles 1919
  31. Independence of Egypt 1922
  32. The end of the RIF's war 1926
  33. Events in 1928
  34. Developments in 1930
  35. Establishment of Iraqi independence1930
  36. Franco Syrian treaty of independence 1936
  37. The Spanish Civil War
  38. The Birth of the Italian Empire
  39. France's surrender of the sanjak of Alexandretta 1938
  40. World War II
  41. The re-conquest of Mediterranean and Europe
  42. The failure of the Axis powers 1945
  43. The Truman coctrine

The history of the Mediterranean region deals with the interaction of cultures and people of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea which was the central superhighway of transport trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples. This history is important in order to understand the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Persian and Canaanite, Jewish, Greek, Roman, Carthaginian and Islamic cultures.

This paper explores the European colonization of the Mediterranean that began in the late 18th Century, and ended in the erosion of the imperial order in the 1950's. The major events in the efforts at Colonization were as follows:

Napoleon Bonaparte realized that in order to be able to confront the English Royal Navy he had to strengthen Frances' naval power. H proposed to do so by seizing Egypt, as this would undermine Britain's access to India and hamper trade. Despite several victories in his expedition into Syria, Napoleon and his naval power were eventually forced to withdraw due to a combination of local hostility, the British naval power, the newly reformed Ottoman army and the Parisian politics.

[...] World War II War breaks out in the Mediterranean region: German invasion 1940: In April Germany invaded Denmark and Norway to secure shipments of iron ore from Sweden, which the Allies would try to disrupt. Denmark immediately capitulated, and despite Allied support, Norway was conquered within two months. Germany's aim was to establish naval bases in Algeria and Tunisia. Italian Invasion: On 10 June, Italy invaded; declaring war on both France and the United Kingdom and twelve days later France surrendered and was soon divided into German and Italian occupation zones, and an unoccupied rump state under the Vichy Regime. [...]


[...] In March 1905, the Kaiser landed at Tangier where he made a speech greeting the Sultan of Morocco as an independent sovereign and promising him German protection if France attempted to colonize his state. The German government followed this up by demanding an international conference to clarify the status of Morocco. Germany's aim of calling a conference was to humiliate France and to split the Entente because from the point of view of international law, Morocco was an independent state and the French claim to Morocco was illegal. [...]


[...] It was claimed that it was the last part of the ethnic cleansing campaign to create an ethnically pure homeland for the Turks . The Spanish Political scenario The Succession Crisis: The death of Ferdinand VII precipitated a succession crisis in Spain. Ferdinand's failure to arrange for a peaceful succession created the scenario for a civil war. In the absence of a son, the successor to the throne was his ultra-conservative brother Carlos. Ferdinand thus changed the Law of Succession to allow his daughter Isabella II to succeed. [...]

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