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Synthesis of Laporte’s History of Shit and Orwell’s 1984 , The Implications of Political Rules and Policies on Individuals

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  1. Introduction
  2. Synthesis of Laporte's History of Shit
  3. Orwell's 1984
  4. The Implications of Political Rules and Policies on Individuals
  5. Conclusion

Laporte in his book, history of shit, examines the role of political rules for good functioning of the society. In the book, Laporte examines and analyses the how society manages waste through enacted laws. Laporte asserts that Freud's triad of order, cleanliness and beauty when embodied by the state result to civilization ?? the totalitarianism of shit to the Totalitarianism of the State?,? (Laporte, 2000). Hence, follows the need to understand the idea of how individuals perceive political rules.

Laporte, in his book ?history of shit? traces the history of development of sophisticated waste disposal techniques, through introduction of rules that force disposition in a certain manner acceptable at both the individual and societal level. Initially, there were no prescribed ways of waste disposal. However, with the implementation of new rules that stated clear ways of waste disposal, waste management became possible. People became aware of the fact that excretion is smelly and results in unhygienic environment that can promote ill health ??We forbid any emptying or tossing out into the city streets and squares of the mentioned city and its surroundings of refuse, offal, or putrefactions?? Furthermore, the need for waste management made people realize that what is a waste can undergo transformation and become gold ?Once eliminated, waste is reinscribed in the cycle of production as gold?? This assertion comes from the fact that excretion when left to decay is useful in the agricultural sector as fertilizer ( Laporte, 2000). This results to increased productivity since the fertility level of the soil increases. Hence, this depicts that a law as the one implemented by the king in Paris can be beneficial to the people as it helps them to progress.

[...] Laporte in his book, history of shit, examines the role of political rules for good functioning of the society. In the book, Laporte examines and analyses the how society manages waste through enacted laws. Laporte asserts that Freud's triad of order, cleanliness and beauty when embodied by the state result to civilization the totalitarianism of shit to the Totalitarianism of the State (Laporte, 2000). Hence, follows the need to understand the idea of how individuals perceive political rules. Laporte, in his book ?history of shit? traces the history of development of sophisticated waste disposal techniques, through introduction of rules that force disposition in a certain manner acceptable at both the individual and societal level. [...]


[...] Use of force and threats in the History of Shit for people to adopt the laws would not be a good idea. People would follow the laws in order to please the king and not for the benefits accrued from proper waste management. Overall, it is evident from the above explanations that individuals perceive political rules differently. Hence, it is obvious that people rebel oppressive laws and embrace laws that promote both individual and group development. However, even if individuals do not agree with the existing laws they must act according to the set regulations or face the wrath of the authorities. [...]


[...] The policies in the History of Shit resulted to revolutions in waste and excretion management. This is unlike in Orwell's 1984 where the oppressive laws do not achieve revolution, as anyone who goes against the system is executed engaged in return revolutionary activities, had been sentenced to death (Orwell, 1977). An example is Goldstein, who had to go to exile in order to escape the wrath of the Party. People embrace policies that promote family unions. This is depicted in the History of Shit where the family units in the process of waste disposal if waste ensconced itself in the home it must certainly have played a role in the emergence of the family ( Laporte, 2000). [...]

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