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Europe from 1945 to 1949

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  1. Introduction
  2. The beginning of Nationalists drift
    1. The progressive integration of Jews
    2. The legacy of traditional Judaism
    3. Persistent prejudices
  3. The rise of antisemitism in the 1880s
    1. The Jew, 'scapegoat of modernity '
    2. Strengthening the construction of identity in race
    3. Discomfort spread by the press and the literature
  4. The violent antisemitism led to a division of corporations
    1. Of termination to the exclusion
    2. The instrumentalization of anti-Semitism by political forces
    3. Zionism, a response to the barbaric antisemitism

In the aftermath of the Second World War, the founding of a European Union remained constitutionally vague. It appeared as the only means that is capable of preventing another global conflict. The League of Nations (SDN) based in Geneva had proposed a sort of federal link. The idea of a European federation was echoed by a number of important movements. The pan-European union was considered as a union member and a European Union of Federalists. In 1945, when German armies surged back and when the Allies arrived, there was a power vacuum.

It was possible to abolish the states and prevent their reconstruction. This vocation of the Federalists was not proved at this time. An opportunity was lost and the states were being reconstructed, but the unifying process could not be ignored. There was the politico-military situation and a clash was looming between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

The failure of the union pact nevertheless led to the creation of several organizations based on the method of intergovernmental cooperation and especially the conclusion of the defense pact between the U.S. and Western Europe. But for Americans, Europe's defense should not be considered only in military terms, and the restoration of economic prosperity was essential to the maintenance of peace.

On March 17, 1948, the Benelux countries renouncing neutrality joined the Franco-British alliance. The signatories of the Brussels Pact undertook to assist each other and to "take the measures deemed necessary in case of resumption of a policy of aggression on the part of Germany." Two articles established a military alliance directed explicitly against Germany. The above formula in the statement of reasons is given in section 7 which provides for the existence of a permanent advisory board to allow the parties to work together to take on in case of threat against peace "wherever it occurs." In case of armed attack in Europe (Article 4), the parties will pay "aid and assistance by all means in their power: albeit military or other."

But the Brussels Pact is not just a military alliance. In fact, yielding to the times, the parties proposed the elimination of "conflict in their economic policy," the development of the standard of living of their people, they wanted to cooperate in the social and cultural domains and even "combine their efforts to bring their people to a deeper understanding of the principles that form the basis of their common civilization" (Article 3).

The failure of this vast ambition is due to three causes. First, the five partners have divergent views: while the Belgians or the Dutch want to begin a process of integration leading to the United States of Europe, the British do not plan to engage in the same. But the main cause of failure is external at the time of signature, the news of the German threat can be questioned and therefore the relevance of a treaty directed against it, the Soviet threat is perhaps more serious after the "Prague Coup".But against this threat then, the military power of the five member countries materializes soon enough.

Tags: Prague Coup, Brussels Pact, League of Nations

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