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Aboriginal Australians - Black response to white dominance 1788 – 1980

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  1. Introduction.
    1. A story of two migrations.
    2. Comparing the plight of the Aborigines to the situations in other societies.
  2. The current hypothesis.
    1. Aborigines came to Australia from the Southeast Asian continent.
    2. Tribes and the division of labor in them.
  3. The British ships that made first contact with the Aborigines.
  4. Subjective value judgment - the British seemed uncivilized upon arriving at Port Jackson.
  5. The British-Aborigine conflict.
    1. British settlers - hardened criminals.
    2. Preconceived notion of Aborigines.
    3. Land as an issue.
    4. The duty on Australian wool.
    5. The breech-loading repeating rifle.
    6. European diseases.
  6. A similar fate for the Ainu.
  7. Coranderrk reservation.
  8. Exploitation of the Ainu and its similarites to that of the Aborigine.
  9. Conclusion.

It seems that a sad hallmark of indigenous peoples is their oppression and systematic elimination at the hands of foreigners. The Native American marginally survives today after centuries of conflict with Europeans. The Ainu of Japan were nearly entirely wiped out by half a millennium of oppression at the hands of the mainland Japanese. So it is with the Aborigines of Australia, who would face a fate most similar to that of the Native Americans, again, at the hands of Europeans. The landing of the first Europeans on the Australian continent would prove to be a fateful one: one which would forever change the existing society of the Aborigines. Until that first arrival in 1788, the Aborigines had held a monopoly on the continent; they were the only human inhabitants of the island. This paper is an exploration of the Aborigines: their history, their culture, and the violent collision of cultures that occurred beginning in 1788. Their history is inextricably linked with the arrival of the first Europeans on the Australian continent during that year. The year marked the first arrivals; they would increase steadily from then on. Thus, in actuality, this paper is a story of two migrations: that of the Aborigines across Australia, and that of the British into Australia.

[...] First, the British had no intention to respect and treat Aboriginal land as the Aborigines had. Second, the British were planning on staying. The British-Aborigine conflict had its root in three main points. First, most of the British settlers were hardened criminals. This was, after all, to be a penal colony. The population was comprised mostly of the convicts banished from Britain. One can only imagine the crimes that they committed, and were presumably still capable of committing again, to earn such a sentence. [...]

[...] They were viewed as intellectually inferior to European children, and received inferior education. Soon, being Aborigine meant being poorly educated, another reason for the Europeans to look down on the Aborigines. However, this was not a condition of race so much as it was of class: it was not that Aborigines were incapable of being well-educated, but rather pervasive and systematic racism to that effect prevented them from receiving a proper education. This, in essence, is Steinberg's thesis, and it gains more evidence in light of the Aborigine experience with education in, by then, a predominantly white society. [...]

[...] It was created to control government expenditure on Aborigines, establish reservations for Aboriginal people, appoint managers to control them, and generally to administer the affairs of the reservations. The Aborigines were put in charge of cultivating the reservation land and then making it habitable. However, in so doing, the Aborigines were given a piece of undesirable land and made it desirable, and desirable land has long been a catalyst in the history of Australia. A similar fate befell the Ainu. [...]

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