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  1. Introduction.
  2. India and despotism.
    1. From company to crown.
    2. Oriental despotism.
  3. The 19th century changes.
    1. Protectionism.
    2. Colony and Industrialization.
    3. The debate over empire.
  4. New imperialism.
    1. The Suez Canal.
    2. Egypt.
    3. Sudan.
  5. Conclusion.
  6. Works cited.

The American War of Independence (1775-1783) is referred to as the end of the first British Empire and as an evolution of the management of the colonies. Britain realized that trade might continue to bring prosperity even in the absence of colonial rule (this contributed to the extension in the 1840s and 1850s of self governing colony status as for example Canada and Australia). The old fashioned mercantilism is replaced by the laissez-faire liberalism of Adam Smith. Moreover, political changes of the management of colonies drove to social reforms too. This period around the 19th century is called: the ?New Imperialism". I will divide my presentation into three parts: firstly, India and despotism; then, the nineteenth century changes; and finally, the ?New Imperialism?.

[...] 3-The Debate over Empire The British imperial dominion is also debated in England. There were many discussions about interventionism upon "native" customs (banning sati, polygamy, and child marriage), about buying shares in the Suez Canal, and about extending its Egyptian protectorate to include Sudan. These questions divided the population and the politics into two groups: the jingoes (imperialists) and the little Englanders (pro nationalists). Nevertheless, in that time, pro imperialists were in power. This is the New Imperialism. New Imperialism 1-The Suez Canal The Suez Canal campaign was the project of a Frenchmen named De Lesseps. [...]

[...] He wrote in an American newspaper: There cannot, however, remain any doubt but that the misery inflicted by the British on Hindostan is of an essentially different and infinitely more intensive kind than all Hindostan had to suffer. Karl Marx considered that England had broken down the entire framework of India society. In centralizing governmental powers, British had interfered with territorial needs. British mismanagement drove to starvation and desertification. The 19th Century Changes 1-Protectionism As the first country to industrialise, Britain had been able to draw on most of the accessible world for raw materials and markets. [...]

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