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Catherine II of Russia - an enlightened despot

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  1. Introduction
  2. The beginning of Nationalists drift
    1. The progressive integration of Jews
    2. The legacy of traditional Judaism
    3. Persistent prejudices
  3. The rise of antisemitism in the 1880s
    1. The Jew, 'scapegoat of modernity '
    2. Strengthening the construction of identity in race
    3. Discomfort spread by the press and the literature
  4. The violent antisemitism led to a division of corporations
    1. Of termination to the exclusion
    2. The instrumentalization of anti-Semitism by political forces
    3. Zionism, a response to the barbaric antisemitism

In 1744, little Sophie fifteen years old went to Russia with her mother following a letter from the Empress, inviting them to attend. Born in the Lutheran religion, it must convert to the religion of her husband orthodoxy in June of that year, then she becomes Alexeievna Catherine, better known under the name of Catherine II or the Great Catherine.

On August 21, she married Peter III. Initially great friends, the couple outline a complicity that will quickly become hate, then come to tears. The years 1744-1762 were very painful for the future Empress: Pierre abandoned his wife. Catherine was not yet pregnant, the Empress Elizabeth, who was concerned about the non-consummation of marriage, pushed Catherine into the arms of a lover and thus on September 20, 1754 was born little Paul. After 9 years hoping for a successor to Peter III, Elizabeth did not care about the legitimacy of the child.
Following the death of Elizabeth, December 25, 1761, Peter ascended the throne of Russia.

The reforms implemented by the new emperor put him back in favor with the church, the military and dignitaries. Indeed, he dissolved the secret chancery, authorized non-Protestants to return to Russia and to freely practice their faith, and secularized the property of the clergy. Peter, had been educated in Prussia; the king vowed an admiration for Frederick II, and then showed a Germanophilism which did not please the Russian people among whom he became very unpopular, especially as he had refused a Russian Orthodox coronation, confirming his inability to govern a people who had now lost faith in him and did not endorse his decision to leave the anti-Prussian coalition.

Catherine began to learn the culture, customs and language of the host country, she condemned the diplomatic and military alliance that Peter had contracted with Prussia in June 1762, earning a crowd of supporters, the contempt between the couple did not then stop from increasing. Peter, who felt threatened by the growing popularity of his wife thought of putting her in exile or getting her confined in a convent to avoid any show of force on the part of his ambitious rival, and in order to marry his mistress. The contempt was such that he disowned his son Paul, did not prioritize him as Tsarevich (son of the Tsar), and never naslednik (successor).
he Catherine coup, threatened imprisonment, was inevitable and was a repeat of history; Elizabeth I had seized power in November 1741 to prevent a German family, the Brunswick-Luneburg, from reigning in Russia after Catherine I.

The Russian people were well aware of the fact that the couple hated each other, knew that Peter III had a mistress and that Catherine II had an unbridled sexuality. The king was no less blind than his people. Catherine was known to have 21 lovers. The best known was Stanislas Poniatowski, ambassador of Augustus III of Saxony.

Tags: Germanophilism, Catherine the Great, Stanislas Poniatowski, Tsarevich, naslednik

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