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Comparison of the organization of the different territorial and local authorities in France and England

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  1. Introduction
  2. Organization of the different French territorial scales
    1. Presentation of the different territorial collectivities
    2. Explanation about this territorial structure
  3. Organization of the different English territorial scales
  4. Comparison between the role and the evolution of communes and local systems in each country
  5. Comparison between the evolution and the role of planning policy in each country
    1. National policy
    2. Controlling development
    3. Technical expertise
    4. Private and public sector
  6. Conclusion

Planning system in France and England shares many common points; there are different local authorities and territorial collectivity in each country, private and public sector plays an important role in the land-use planning? but there are also lots of differences; policy is not the same in each country, the power of each territorial collectivity or local authority is different; however, all these things are changing. In this essay, we will explain and define the different territorial collectivities and local authorities, show which network exists between the different levels in France in the first part and in England in the second part. In the third part, we will make a comparison between the role and the evolution of communes and local systems in each country. Finally, we will make a comparison between the evolution and the role of planning policy in each country.

[...] New kind of policy guidance and instruments of planning appeared these last years like the ?Schéma de Cohérence Territoriale? (SCOT), the Plan Local de l?Urbanisme (PLU) . This evolution represent an evolution towards a more strategic which take account of social and environmentally problems. With these changement, it was really important to be sure that transport policies but also housing, economic development, and retailing plans are compatible with the SCOT. The meaning of ?national? planning policy is rather different on either side of the Channel. [...]

[...] In 1990s, we could see appeared joint structure planning arrangements between countries and new unitary authorities in many regions, which was in parallel with the creation of Regional Planning Guidance (RPG) across England. This required far more cooperation and discussion between neighbouring local authorities than in the 1980s. RPG has been replaced by Regional Spatial Strategies (RSS) In 2004, thus placing regional planning on a firm legislative footing. In France, it was difficult to reconcile the geography of the commune, department and region with the functional needs of plan-making. [...]

[...] The territorial structure of England is simple and pragmatic; it results from successive rationalizations of the local administration according to the political, demographic and economic evolutions. The territorial administration of England is very different from that of France, with its four levels of regions with a measure of autonomy - municipalities, cantons, departments and regions. England in had to put itself at the hour European time by creating "regions", but if they exist on paper, the only one of these regions, that of London, has its council and its function of territorial governance. [...]

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