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German power in 1913

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  1. A family that is closely linked with the US authorities
    1. A strong commitment to the American political and economic life
    2. The incarnation of the "model family" in the American myth of the Kennedys
  2. A controversial ?clan?
    1. The hidden faces of the Kennedy clan
    2. The end of a myth?

1913 was a very important year in statistics because it was the last year of real prosperity in Europe before the First World War due to the radical changes it brought. This key point is representative of the new economic order that has emerged since the mid eighteenth century in the world, including Germany, which seems to grow from it. We will rely primarily on the work of Paul Kennedy, a British historian born in 1945, and a specialist in geo-strategic and international relations. The major work of Kennedy from 1987 was titled "Rise and Fall of Great Powers," which analyzed the economics and politics of major powers from 1500 to 1980. He highlights the factors that explain a new world economic order on the eve of war, and during this last level of military spending. To what extent was Germany's accession to the rank of major economic power on the eve of the war, decisive in the first world war? To answer this question, we will first study the factors in the rise of Germany, and then try to understand its industrial strength at the dawn of war, and its contribution during the conflict.

Indeed, on the eve of the Great War, the world economic order was reversed. The United States, a young but very dynamic country, found itself the superpower largely ahead of all other nations. Moreover, the old order long established in Europe at the end of the first Industrial Revolution was upset in the early twentieth century. The country now the most active, most productive, and which rose just behind the United States was Germany, which transcended the powerful Britain, the leader of the first Industrial Revolution, and who had just everything it needed to maintain its hegemony in Europe.

The status of Germany on the eve of World War I and the result depended on the evolution of other major powers, which enabled it to reach this rank, but was mainly the result of internal changes in the country.Germany in 1913 had 66.9 million inhabitants.

Demographically, it surpassed all its rivals in Western Europe. Indeed, from 1870 to 1913, the German population grew by 26 million (it increased from about 40.9 million to 66.9), when France only grew by 4 million during the same period. Britain meanwhile, reached 45.6 million inhabitants. This was due to the fact that both countries started their demographic transition early (eg France since the 1720s), while Germany did not enter until the mid-19th century. The second phase of this transition (the lower birth rate following the decline in mortality rates) only began in the 1880s. The number of children per woman was still high (around 5 children per woman) in the early twentieth century, unlike other Western European countries, whose population growth was mainly based on the declining mortality and increasing life expectancy. Russia witnessed an exceptional population growth. In a century, it rose from 36 million in 1815 to 175 million in 1913 (in the imperial territory, which certainly includes territories such as Poland or Ukraine today).

Tags: Nazi Germany, industrial revolution, rise of Hitler

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