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History of Cuba from its independence until today

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  1. Introduction
  2. The beginning of Nationalists drift
    1. The progressive integration of Jews
    2. The legacy of traditional Judaism
    3. Persistent prejudices
  3. The rise of antisemitism in the 1880s
    1. The Jew, 'scapegoat of modernity '
    2. Strengthening the construction of identity in race
    3. Discomfort spread by the press and the literature
  4. The violent antisemitism led to a division of corporations
    1. Of termination to the exclusion
    2. The instrumentalization of anti-Semitism by political forces
    3. Zionism, a response to the barbaric antisemitism

The history of Cuba as we know it began with Christopher Columbus, who landed on the island on Oct. 27, 1492. From the 16th century, sugar cane, tobacco and coffee have formed the basis of a plantation economy and continued until today. Havana became a flourishing port of the great Caribbean and America, which, in addition to these three products also exported skins, wood, etc, and the thriving trade was governed by the Colonial Pact. A colonial society was put in place very quickly, as the Spaniards were not slow to use the labor provided by African slaves, while a powerful class of Cuban landlords tended to form simultaneously. The occupation of Havana by the English (1792) and War of Independence of the United States (1770-1781) which succeeded it, opened Cuban trade which was largely liberal Anglo-Saxon, and the North American market.

If Cuba was the last of the Spanish colonies to gain independence, it has not really been able to give substance to the dream of liberation and national sovereignty of its liberating hero, Jose Marti. His project, opposed by the oligarchic bloc and weakened by his death at the beginning of the last war of independence in 1895, did not just get rid of Spanish colonialism. It also provided, in the short term, the confrontation with U.S. imperialism and the fight against a new colonialism.

The founder of the Cuban nation: the revolutionary Jose Marti - In Cuban history and memory, José Martí (1853-1895), writer, political orator, critic and man of action, remains the most emblematic figure of the struggle for the independence of the island and in Latin America. Ardent defender of freedom, he participated in revolutionary liberation struggles, first in anti-Spanish conspiracies and then in anti-imperialist actions directed against the United States. He founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party. From the decade of war and the "Grito de Yara" (October 10, 1868), he raised violent anti-colonial diatribes, founded the newspaper "La Patria Libre" and was twice convicted and deported to Spain for his revolutionary activities.

From 1880 he lived in the United States, where he began to prepare for the Revolutionary War along with the Cuban exiles. The war of independence began on February 24, 1885, in Baire. During the war of independence on the Cuban side, the initiative had come to people of humble origin, including Maximo Gomez, Juan Gualberto Gomez and especially Jose Marti. These people found themselves uniting around a program coming from the Cuban Revolutionary Party, founded in 1892 and focused on a dual commitment: to fight against Spanish colonialism and prepare for an expected confrontation with the northern neighbor.

On the political level, the revolutionaries demanded complete independence not only from Madrid, but also Washington, and the establishment of a democratic republic; he was concerned with freedom in Puerto Rico and the other Antilles. From the social point of view, he aspired to achieve national unity and direct social relations in one direction rather than the revolutionary socialist one. The Washington government quickly crushed the pitiful Spanish army and refused to recognize the government of the Cuban Republic Army preventing the entry of additional Cuban troops in the city of Santiago who had surrendered.

Tags: Jose Marti, colonialism, Cuban Revolutionary Party

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