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The civil rights movement – From counters to subs

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  1. Black counterculture: Projects and action.
  2. Political and ideological forefront.
    1. The 'separate but equal' myth.
    2. The three M's (Marcus Garvey, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr).
  3. Expressions of Black counterculture.
    1. Civil disobedience/legal change.
    2. 'By any means necessary': Taking change to another level.
  4. A stigmatized population.
    1. A desperate situation despite legal progress in the 60's.
    2. No credible political force is emerging.
  5. Counterculture adopts institutionalized means of expression.
    1. Through literature.
    2. Through music.

The Emancipation Proclamation abolished slavery (speech by Lincoln Sept.23nd 1862 ? 13th amendment in 1865); the 14th amendment declared everyone equal and the 15th gave the right to vote provided some very restrictive conditions were met. Between the Civil War and the 50's, however, the South stayed very reluctant to apply this legislation with respect to its prime intentions? Some slaves in Texas weren't informed of their freedom until June 19th 1865 and once freed; African Americans were treated in an outrageous manner. In response to this situation, African Americans came together to change the system. In the 50's/60's, their movement was dubbed the ?civil rights movement?. This phrase seems to be the only one that encompasses the many different doctrines of the time. Some necessary legislation having been adopted in the 50's/ 60's, the movement has largely been incorporated in the mainstream, losing much of its force, but some residual groups haven't given up on their ambition to purify American society of racism. In order to see the steps the movement has gone through, we will proceed chronologically in our analysis of the fight for equal rights.

[...] Using poetry isn't new to the movement Langston Hughes wrote in the beginning of the 20th century, in the middle of the jazz age to denounce injustice. Other more widely known authors include Alice Walker (The Color Purple) and Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison (Beloved) both of whom relied on historical accounts of African Americans to tie them back to the present. Through music Black English (ebonics) has long been excluded from literature though some classes are taught in that form of the language in experimental schools in bilingual education and in specific college courses. [...]

[...] Though these movements led to some legal change and were particularly popular amongst the moderate white people, the movement needed to get more results and to get these results fast Sure they had gained legal equality, but as after the civil war, African Americans didn't have the money to exercise their right to go eat at the white lunch counter. With this feeling, more radical movements were born, feeding off of Malcolm X's teachings. any means necessary?: taking change to another level To the traditional march question, ?what do we marchers started to cry out ?black power?, claiming that the freedom they'd chanted in the earlier days hadn't worked out quite the way they'd planned it. [...]

[...] Because he showed us the value of our lives, we have become capable of saving them.? (June Jordan, ?Update on Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Best of My Heart', in Some of Us Did NOT Die.) 1 Expressions of Black counterculture Civil disobedience/ legal change Martin Luther King's principles found their direct application in marches, boycotts, and symbolical civil disobedience He presided the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) from 1957 to his assassination in 1968. The first big movement was the Montgomery bus boycott from 1955 to 1956. [...]

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